CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
INTRODUCTION: This thesis aims to analyse gender inequality in the political system. Democracyâ€”rule by the peopleâ€”should embrace all segments of society. One instrument for the authorisation of women within the government could be a quota system, other than the aforementioned cultural, economic and social and historical reasons, female participation additionally depends on the voting system. MEASURING GENDER INEQUALITY
To evaluate inequality, the United Nations Expansion Programme developed two indicators: the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and also the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). The GDI measures (the same as the Human Development Index, HDI) anticipation, knowledge and also the standard of life. The indicators are: (1) the life expectancy at birth; (2) the mature literacy tempo and the amalgamation of the gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools;and (3) the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP). The GDI was developed in 1995 and measures women and men one by one to point out the variations in status between the genders. The result may be a figure between zero and one; the proper score of 1 (equal conditions) has not however been reached by any country in the world . The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) has the subsequent indicators: (1) Seats in parliament controlled by women; (2) female legislators, high-ranked officers and managers; and (3) female that are skilled and technical workers. The dimension is between zero and one, with 1 further being the proper as-yet unapproachable score. Only six European countries have a GEM of more than 0.8. This result shows the extent of the matter in empowering women. 5.1 RESEACH QUESTION 1 WHY IS GENDER EQUALITY NEEDED IN POLITICS
First, the Universal Human Rights Declaration of 1948 (HRD) states in Article 2, â€œEveryone is entitled to all or any of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, with no distinction of any kind, like race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or any different opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or any other different standing...â€ Equal dignity, rights, power, and potentialities for people at large are written down in several international declarations, conventions and treaties. Conjointly countless national constitutions necessitate equality and particularly gender equality. Every citizen of a liberal democracy ought to have human rights; just like the right to freedom of opinion and expression (Art. 19 HRD), having the right of peaceful assembly and association (Art. 20 HRD), and also the right to require or take part in the government of his or her nation, forthrightly or through openly chosen spokesperson (Art. 21 HRD). Human rights just like the right to work, the right to free alternative to employment, the right to equal pay for equal work (Art. 23 HRD) and also the right to education (Art. 26 HRD) are vital necessities of society and pertain directly to the problems of gender equality. Democracy is outlined or translated from the greek as â€œrule by the populace.â€ A sincere interpretation of democracy is that it ought to be inclusive, democratic, representative, accountable and transparent. But however, will we have a tendency to describe a nation as democratic if women donâ€™t participate to the maximum as men? However, can it be called representative if women are 50 percent of the population but only 15.7 percent of the members of parliament within the world average (single house, lower house, upper house and senate)? Not only the input-designation of diplomacy and democracy and also the internationally recognised human rights represents reasons for additional gender equality, conjointly, the output-orientation of politics is showing reasons for additional gender equality. Numerous reports state that redoubled womenâ€™s participation can have a powerful influence on policy results. Several scientists made a case that women are typically more trustworthy and unselfish than men. A better female participation would promote a more peaceful government. A policy analysis report of the World Bank asks, â€œAre females really the open-minded Sex? Deception and Women in Government.â€ This report from 1999 concluded: â€œWe notice that at the country level, higher rates of feminine participation in government are related to lower levels of corruption.â€ 5.2 RESEARCH QUESTION 2 WHY DO WOMEN NEED SPECIAL RIGHTS
The measurements of the GDI and GEM show that womenâ€™s power, opportunities and quality of life are lesser than those of men. Globally 2 out of 3 illiterate individuals are women. In 1995, 24.5 percent of women didnâ€™t go to college, compared with 16.4 percent of boys. In South Asia, particularly in Pakistan, things are worse: there the school requirements or enrolment of girls is 50 percent less than that of boys. Of the 1.2 billion people in the world living in extreme financial condition, 70 percent are women. As a result, womenâ€™s health condition is worse. Violence against women is another specific problem; particularly within the private or family setting. Statistics say that each 9 seconds a woman is desecrated by her boyfriend or husband in the United States. In India around 10.000 female newborns are killed once a year due to the fact that their parents cannot afford the dower. There are a number of explanations why women want special rights and everybody ought to begin to fight for womenâ€™s rights. Political rights and political participation are one facet of womenâ€™s empowerment and increasing womenâ€™s life quality. To place it the other way round, a redoubled life quality can empower more women to participate in politics. 5.3 REFLECTION
This Thesis had truely made me to remember the lack of participation in politics of women all round the world. During this context, â€œParticipation,â€ from the Latin participatio, means collaborating. In otherwords it could be understood as taking part, as well as giving part. Political participation contains all actions of individuals to influence the political system at the native, regional, national or international level. Participation may well be standard (in political parties, as voters); unconventional (in social movements or nongovernmental organizations); legal or banned (non-violent as in demonstrations or direct action, or violent as in terrorism). Generally women donâ€™t participate to the maximum as men. If they participate they use additional non-conventional ways. Theyâ€™re more engaged in social movements and non-governmental organizations than in administration, legislature or diplomatic parties. Political participation also can be measured by means of that of political illustration. Representation implies that de-jure authorised citizens ought to be elected to the parliament and form the government. Usually, the parliament ought to be a mirror of the society. All groups should be represented equally. In Nigeria,the area which provides great concern as shown by this thesis is that the political representation of females. Women are underrepresented in practically all political decision-making bodies. Only 9% of those who stood for election in Nigeria's April 2011 National Assembly elections were females. Thatâ€™s out of the 360 members of the House of Representatives, only 25 are women, that is 6% compared to that of the African average of 19%. The dearth of women in decision-making positions could also be another explanation for Nigeria's low investment in sectors that are crucial to human successful end result, like health and education While in Croatia as well, within the course of Croatiaâ€™s transformational democracy, womenâ€™s role is re-traditionalised from the worker-mother to the mother-worker. The mother-worker is inspired to support the present states objectives and womenâ€™s primary responsibility is in caring and building her family. Womenâ€™s role as mother and caregiver is placed high on the stateâ€™s agenda and womenâ€™s work outside of the house is predicted, by the state to require a secondary position. Because the stateâ€™s establishment transforms, the constancy that continues to be is that of the presence of a patriarchal society. 6.0 CHAPTER SIX
6.1 CONCLUSION This research work has been carried out so as to assess the method women have been disregarded in respect of political participation. Women,all over the globe hold a minority position politically that has since been a troubling issue for women. This minority role in virtually everything most especially in political arena, has led to the cry out for Gender Equality between men and women all over the world. Which l hope would be achieved,if not totally but at least in vital decision making positions. This Research work has been divided into six parts:
- The first part ,which is Chapter one,contains the Introduction,Background and also the Structure of the research work
- The second part ,which is Chapter two, is the review of the relevant literature
- The third part mentioned the methodology adopted for research
- The fourth part dealt with the presentation of reports of Inequality in women in both Croatia and Nigeria
- The fifth part was concentrated on the Analysis of the Reports and finally
- The sixth and last chapter is the Conclusion and Recommendation.
6.2 RECOMMENDATION Even though womenâ€™s political participation and representation is not democratic. The causality of the power gap between women and men is incredibly difficult to clarify. There are countless reasons for female under-representation: family background, cultural and non-secular background, gender identity, education, age, job, income, and time budget, all of these reasons these influence the political career of a woman. All the explanations for under-representation are the results of female oppression as well. Women all over the globe fit into their own special context that is created by their religion, nation, ethnicity and reasonable situation. It is not only gender that defines individuality. There is no general instrument to extend or increase womenâ€™s power in every society. Below are my Recommendations: 1 )The introduced example of quotas may well be one instrument to increase the number of female parliamentarians. 2) An expanded involvement of women will be helpful to alter peoplesâ€™ minds regarding their fitness to govern. 3) However before that, the political internal efficacy should be trained. Women ought to be trained for political discourses and motivated to speak up for her rights or their political interests. Another vital point is to highlight that the difference between women and men is simply a result of their various behaviours. Men as well as women ought to learn that gender identities belong to history and that it is not the sole option for women to remain at home and take care of children. A better political representation of women will also be helpful to break down this type of stereotypes and reasons for inequality.