Food, drinking water and fresh air

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Chapter-1 Introduction

1.1Overview

To have life on the earth food, drinking water and fresh air are the basic requirement. Without these life is not possible. The way population is increasing, demand of these basics also increasing. Every country has to find the new sources of these 3 basic requirements otherwise it is difficult to cope up with the demand. Dependability on natural sources is not enough for this purpose. In this new era, technological changes have changed the world scenario. Technological enhancement made life smooth and easy. Biotechnology is another technological change which occurred in to the field of biology. It is becoming one of the most growing industries in the world. Technology includes genetic engineering to change the plants, animals from the root of their gene and this alteration has contributed significant progress in the medical, pharmaceutical and agriculture (Brown, 1995). Economies need to increased production by innovation and modernize the production process because drastic increase in population. To meet the demand genetically modification of food seeds and animals targeted at improving the productivity and quality of the food (Robinson, 2002). Introduction of biotechnology into agricultural production is one of the most important steps. The purpose of genetic modification (GM) technology on crops and the consequential genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are measured important but controversial advancements in science and technology. Even though, promises and benefits make known by many companies and the regulatory bodies such as reduction of pesticide usage, advanced crop yields, improved nutritional values etc. GMF is still controversial subject in many countries. Introduction of GMF in consumer markets shown significant social, political and economical implications. But in this process food safety become the critical issue with focusing on food and environmental quality. Consumer’s response in the acceptance of GMF, will decide the success or failure of the products and companies. Hence, until we know about the consumer behavior about the GMF companies and scientist will not be able to know about its success (Madden, 1995). Many consumers from European Union and Japan have not accepted GM product with open heart (Macer and Ng, 2000). They are feeling hesitation in buying the GM product because they are not aware about the products effect on the health of human being. And there are some ethical and religious concerns which includes possible intake of genes from animal contained in GMF, and there is no differentiation of those products available. Public approach for biotechnology and its applications are majorly determined by perceived risks and benefits connected with genetic engineering (Frewer, Hedderley, Howard and Shepherd, 1997; Yeung and Morris, 2001). In turn, consumer knowledge of GMF as well as socio-economic factors, demographic factors and ethical concerns all contribute to shaping opinions and beliefs (Hoban, 1999). Several studies have found out and analyzed the relationship between risk perception and consumer acceptance. Evidence shows that there are noticeable differences in attitudes between and within countries (Fortin and Renton, 2003; Frewer, Shepherd and Sparks, 1994; Frewer, Howard and Shepherd,

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