Environment Protection Environmental modification is as old as the history of human development. In the last century, development and modification have come much faster then ever before. While it took a few thousand years for man to pass from Paleolithic to Neolithic tools, it has taken less than a century to modify conventional weaponry to nuclear devices. Development has been so rapid that nature has not had time to adapt to these changes and to human requirement and greed. The last century has seen an unmanageable increase in population, placing a tremendous burden on natural resources. There is not enough food for the world’s hungry. Also, the earth itself is worn out due to excessive farming, use of chemicals and pesticides and excessive use of ground water. Water resources are badly polluted and emission of toxic fumes from industry and vehicles has deprived us of clean air. Industrialisation and a growing consumer economy have led to the creation of huge megapolises with their problems of undisposed garbage and uncontrolled sewage. To combat these problems, world bodies like the United Nations and the World Commission on Environment and Development have been formulating ideas for environmental protection and sustainable development. Several international conferences have been held on this subject, starting with the first one in Tbilisi in 1977 to the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Population Summit at Copenhagen, the world Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and several others. It is clearly evident that 25 years after the first conference in Tbilisi, there has not been an appreciable change in lifestyles or the level of awareness. Countries have put their own interests ahead of environmental protection and the future of coming generations. What has been India’s stand on environmental protection? How far has our governing body succeeded in their avowed aims of cleaning up the environment? Various acts have been passed down the years, too innumerable to be put down here. The Ministry of Environment and Forests laid down its objectives: A. Conservation & survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife B. Prevention and control of pollution C. Afforestation & regeneration of degraded areas D. Protection of environment, all within the frame work of legislations. The main tools utilized for this include: A. Surveys and impact assessment B.
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