Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid and Autism

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INTRODUCTION

Autism is a neurodevelopmental Disorder, one of five disorders classified collectively as autism spectrum disorder, is diagnosable by the age of three. Diagnosed individuals may show many symptoms such as pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication and, stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behaviors & interests (Zimmermann, Gaspary, Leite, Cognato, & Bonan, 2015). Autism is said to have a strong genetic & environmental connection. However, the etiology of autism has not yet been copiously understood or studied (Chen, et al., 2018).

Effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid, one of the widely used antiepileptic drug for the treatment of seizures and bipolar disorder and overactivation of Protein Kinase C is being discussed in this paper (Liu, et al., 2018).

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PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO VALPROIC ACID

Exposure to valproic acid during embryonic growth adjusts neural progenitor cell proliferation and could also cause behavioral disfigurements in adult organisms (Lee, Kim, Yun, & Lee, 2013). Embryos collected from Wild-type AB line spawning adult zebrafish within about 0.5 h of spawning had been exposed to a VPA stock solution of 500 mM for the initial step of this study. The working solution had been prepared by diluting stock solution instantly prior to the experiment. The six different concentrations of solutions where the embryos from 8 to 120 h post fertilization were continuously exposed were between 0 and 1500 ?M, with the 0 being the control (Chen, et al., 2018).

Developmental endpoints measured in this study comprised of malformations & mortality at 120 hours post fertilization. In this study the experiments contained of three biological triplicates with 20 embryos in each repeat. At the end embryos were moved to clean fish water for additional evaluations where the size of their head was measured at 4.5 days post fertilization and behavioral patterns were evaluated five days post fertilization with the use of Alcian blue stain and Image J software procedures (Chen, et al., 2018).

Zebrafish embryos exposed to Valproic acid were assessed for Embryonic and larval movement behaviors, spontaneous movement such as alternating tail bending or coiling, the response to touch in embryos that were manually dechorionated and the distance moved after touching were scored manually. Moreover, Larvae were adapted for 20 minutes before recording swimming for 10min visible light period, followed by a 10-minute dark (infrared light) period for evaluation of the average swim speed in light and dark atmospheres (Chen, et al., 2018). Basic tracking settings were used for larval movement tests such as their preference behavior of light and dark backgrounds and the number of times larva crossed between light & dark areas where data collected every 60sec for 6 minutes. Shoaling behaviors, Mirror attack behaviors and,

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