Disease and Nutrition

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Part I: The Diet

The present paper will focus on Case 001 with the goal to analyze the patient’s nutrition and provide recommendations. At first glance, there is not enough information to determine the individual’s daily protein intake. However, it can be concluded that the patient eats excessive amounts of carbohydrates and fats daily as his diet consists primarily of fast food. Foods that are high in sugar and fat are unhealthy for the patient since he suffers from hypertension and type II diabetes. These medical conditions are greatly influenced by one’s diet and can be caused by high fat and sugar intake. J.W. is 6 feet tall and weighs 230lb, with a BMI of 31.2. The high BMI indicates obesity, which contributes to type II diabetes and hypertension and impairs the effectiveness of treatment.

Interestingly, J.W.’s diet meets the RDA for five or more micronutrients. Setiawan et al. (2016) argue that, while frying does in fact damage some micronutrients, it also enhances others. First, it has little or no impact on protein, which means that a person eating fast food each day might still have enough protein in their diet (Setiawan et al., 2016). Secondly, frying enhances dietary fiber content due to the formation of resistant starch. Setiawan et al. (2016) add that fried foods can be a great source of thiamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Nevertheless, it is important to note that some crucial micronutrients, such as unsaturated fatty acids and some antioxidants, are lost during the frying process. Thus, although the patient may be obtaining enough protein, dietary fiber, vitamin C, thiamine, and vitamin E, his intake of saturated fat, sugar, and calories is too high for his age and medical condition.

Part II: Disease and Nutrition

As stated above, the patient’s diet negatively affects his health condition. Olawuyi and Adeoye (2018) confirm that non-communicable diseases are mainly brought on by lifestyle choices. For instance, obesity, which is J.W.’s main health concern, is caused by excessive calorie intake. Rightfully, the patient has been asked to reduce weight by losing one pound every week for the next three months. Since there is no cure for diabetes and hypertension, the patient will have to manage the conditions throughout his life using medication and proper nutrition. Hypertension and diabetes are also linked to excessive consumption of fats and carbohydrates. If the patient continues to eat fast foods, he will not lose weight, and this will negatively affect the management of his conditions. For example, a high level of fat in J.W.’s diet will lead to excessive blood cholesterol, which causes fatty deposits in blood vessels, thus increasing blood pressure and cardiovascular risks.

Excessive consumption of carbohydrates is also evident in J.W.’s case. Most types of fast food include fried potatoes and some kind of fried meat (e.g., chicken, pork, beef, etc.). As the share of potatoes in one portion is larger than the share of meat,

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