DIRECTING Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing. It is the act of supervising or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization. Furthermore, it is a process of influencing people’s behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization’s mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. Consequently, directing includes the following functions--- the manager plays an active rather than passive role in employee performance, conduct, and accomplishments; the manager has a sensed responsibility of helping people in the organization accomplish their individual career goals; motivation; communication; performance appraisal; discipline; and conflict management. There are four ways to effectively carry out the managerial function of directing. First, to issue orders that are clear, complete, and within the capabilities of the subordinates; to define assignments; and to provide guidelines. Second, to provide an incessant training activity in which subordinates are given instructions. Third, to motivate workers to meet the expectations of the manager. Fourth, to maintain discipline; reward those who perform well; provide positive feedback; and be sincere throughout. To determine how good are the results that you get out of your subordinates, output or production; quality and workmanship; and cost and budget are to be considered. The different approaches in directing subordinates are as follows: train unskilled subordinates; consider your subordinates ideas; be accessible; listen actively and ask follow up questions; accept bad news as well as good ones; show that you value an opinion; and assume a “take charge’ role in cases of emergency. The manager must be able to motivate he’s employees in order to get things done. Motivation results from the existence of a person’s needs and the fulfillment of those needs. A need is an unfulfilled physiological or sychological desire of an individual. Several personalities proposed their own ideas regarding motivation and related it to management. Abraham Maslow, well known for his Hierarchy of Needs, identified five levels of human needs. These basic needs that motivate people to act in ways they do are the physiological, safety, social/belonging/love, esteem, and self actualization needs. Esteem and self actualization needs satisfy the higher order needs whereas physiological, safety, and social/belonging/love needs satisfy the lower order of needs. Frederick Herzberg introduced the Motivator or Hygiene Approach and classified needs into two factors: Motivation Factors, which are needed to motivate employee into higher performance; and Hygiene Factors that ensures the prevention of employee’s dissatisfaction. David McClelland also had his own approach regarding motivation which was called as Needs-based Motivation Model. Here he identified three needs that are vital to motivation, found to varying degrees in all workers or managers, and characterizes individual style and behavior. This includes the need for achievement (n-ach), need for power (n-pow), and need for affiliation (n-affil). Victor Vroom presented the Expectancy Theory which assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize and minimize pain. It say that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that: there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, the reward will satisfy an important need, and the desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. Harold Leavitt, an author and management expert advocated a more democratic approach to organizational decision-making but also concluded that people in large groups work through a chain of command. He devoted much of his research to studying the dynamics of group decision making but found that hierarchical structures were unavoidable and probably necessary. He concluded that hierarchy remained “the best method ever invented for solving complicated problems. Communication is the ability to communicate with all people with whom the eader comes into regular contact; the ability to communicate continuously; the ability to use language which those on the receiving end will be able to understand and respond to. It transfers information and enhances understanding among individuals and groups. The elements of communication are medium, message, speaker, listener, feedback, interference, and context. Communication techniques include effective speaking, effective learning, feedback, and alert to nonverbal signals. Barriers encompass physical, psychological, cultural, attitudes and behavioral aspects.
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