Developmental Theory: Piaget and Bowlby

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The human development issue has been of a relevant nature within the human society. There are different developmental theories that have been researched and published by some of the world’s most renowned psychologists. This among them involves the theory of Bowlby on attachment that lays emphasis on the vitality of a trusting and secure mother-infant bond on well-being and development. The theory on psychosocial by Erikson who believed that childhood played a crucial part in the development of personality will also be featured. This paper is going to look into these theories and determine how they relate to each other not forgetting to also point out the differences that are in existence between the two (Child Development, 2017).

Zastrow (2016) describes human development as the continuous process of growth and change, involving physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics that occur over a lifespan. It involves characteristics that occur in a lifespan in a physical, mental, emotional, and social (p.77). This human growth tends to follow a sequential pattern. However, there are individual differences caused by inheritance and the surrounding. One of the human development stages is the preschool stage; it is the stage right before a child goes to formal school. It is a very important stage because his personality is being shaped with the help of those around them. In addition, they become more independent and interact with others.

The psychosocial theory by Erikson was established from Sigmund`s psychosexual theory and his widespread practical field research. It lays emphasis on the change and growth of the individual. He managed to include social and cultural bits into Freud`s sexually and biological oriented theory and concentrated on the manner in which the ecology and experience shaped personality and behavior. A human development lifespan subdivided into eight stages was first developed by Erikson. There is an element of crisis that is associated with each one of the stages that have two opposing emotional forces which are to be solved by the individual in order to successfully progress to the stage that comes next. A basic quality is formed when there is a good balance of the two forces while a penchant on the side of one of the contrasting forces brings about malignancy or maladaptation. There is a link between the stages of transition. It is not an accomplishment scale where the phases of crisis can be resolved eternally. There is a possibility of a previous crisis to reoccur in a positive or negative manner (Thomas, 2014).

The driving force of the stages is sexual and physical growth, which stimulates the issues in life that form the crises. Age is not a precise driving factor thus the age range is just but a rough guide, more so during the advanced stages when there is a variation in influences and timing. There is a variation of interpretation in terms of age between academics and writers. The lack of an interpretation of fixed stages of age by Erikson was deliberate as no given person can be able to do it.

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