Credit Risk

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The future of banking will undoubtedly rest on risk management dynamics. Only those banks that have efficient risk management system will survive in the market in the long run. The major cause of serious banking problems over the years continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or a lack of attention to deterioration in the credit standing of a bank’s counterparties.

Credit risk is the oldest and biggest risk that bank, by virtue of its very nature of business, inherits. This has however, acquired a greater significance in the recent past for various reasons. There have been many traditional approaches to measure credit risk like logit, linear probability model but with passage of time new approaches have been developed like the Credit+, KMV Model.

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Basel I Accord was introduced in 1988 to have a framework for regulatory capital for banks but the “one size fit all” approach led to a shift, to a new and comprehensive approach -Basel II which adopts a three pillar approach to risk management. Banks use a number of techniques to mitigate the credit risks to which they are exposed. RBI has prescribed adoption of comprehensive approach for the purpose of CRM which allows fuller offset of security of collateral against exposures by effectively reducing the exposure amount by the value ascribed to the collateral.

In this study, a leading nationalized bank is taken to study the steps taken by the bank to implement the Basel- II Accord and the entire framework developed for credit risk management. The bank under the study uses the credit scoring method to evaluate the credit risk involved in various loans/advances. The bank has set up special software to evaluate each case under various parameters and a monitoring system to continuously track each asset’s performance in accordance with the evaluation parameters.



1.1 Rationale

Credit Risk Management in today’s deregulated market is a big challenge. Increased market volatility has brought with it the need for smart analysis and specialized applications in managing credit risk. A well defined policy framework is needed to help the operating staff identify the risk-event, assign a probability to each, quantify the likely loss, assess the acceptability of the exposure, price the risk and monitor them right to the point where they are paid off.

Generally, Banks in India evaluate a proposal through the traditional tools of project financing, computing maximum permissible limits, assessing management capabilities and prescribing a ceiling for an industry exposure. As banks move in to a new high powered world of financial operations and trading, with new risks, the need is felt for more sophisticated and versatile instruments for risk assessment,

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