“ Critically evaluate how globalizing and commercial forces have influenced sports generally and football especially. You should also include in your analysis the influence of globilization and commercialization on the management and governance of organizations in light of Stewart and Smith’s (1999) unique features of sport. You should discuss the implications of these changes on the management of sporting organizations.
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You must be critical rather than descriptive in your analysis and refer to theory wherever possible” This paper seeks to present how commercialization and globalization have affected sports industry in our days and how sport managers have to respond to these two factors. Sports always were concerning human communities, and were at the centre of human activities. At the early 590 BC the Greek athletes were financially rewarded for an Olympic victory-winning (Harris, 1964). “Sports has not always had such an international flavour. Sports first spread across international borders through imperialistic efforts. As countries such as Great Britain colonised various areas throughout the world, sport was used to impose the conquerors culture on the colonised land” ( Masteralexis, Barr and Hums,1998, p.210). Nowdays sports attract the public interest and “Modern sports and modern mass media are both multibillion-dollar businesses. Elite sports cannot function as they do without the mass media to publicize and underwrite them. The huge market for sports equipment and team-related merchandise is to a large extent sustained by the media’s 24-hour-a-day sports coverage, and the economic infrastructure of the mass media depends to a considerable extent on the capacity of sports to create large, loyal cohorts of readers, listeners, viewers, and interactive consumers” (https://www.britannica.com/eb/article-253580). Sport is a main interest in modern societies as more and more people participate like ever before. This massive growth of sport interest and activities has drove to main changes the major characteristics of sport. These changes that characterize sport are related to social changes as “among these changes some trends may be identified. First, sporting activities in western countries are characterized by a trend toward pluralisation i.e. by the increase in the number of sports that are practiced. At the same time sport activities know a process of diversification and differentiation: recreational, competitive and professional sports are becoming more and more separated. Second, sport activities are subject to a growing individualism. Sport is more and more seen as an option for an individual. The general ideology concerning sport has moved “from sport as a collective right to sport as an individual option” leading to the adoption of the principle of “let the user pay”. Individualism and pluralization may be seen as the cause of a trend toward the “marketization” (or commercialization ) of sport. In effect, sport is among the fastest growing leisure markets. All sorts of sport, and not only top sport are characterized by a growing involvement of money.” ( Enjolas,
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