Human cloning is a widely controversial topic to people who do not fully understand the science behind cloning as most people have an ethical issue with cloning a human. While it is called human cloning it is not the process of completely cloning a full body human. Cloning for medical purposes includes being able to clone fully functional stem cells that are used to build, maintain and repair the human body throughout our entire lives.
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It is even possible for these cloned stem cells to be used to create whole organs for people who are in need. Normally there is a few issues that would arise when transplanting stem cells into another person because they can be seen as foreign entities by the human body. Human cloning provides the means to create exact copies of people’s stem cells essentially removing the issues that would arise when the body detects the stem cells as foreign. Cloning also could help with the discovery and modeling of diseases from animals that have been cloned for the purpose of disease discovery. The process of human cloning is performed by the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT). This is the same process that was used to create Dolly the sheep. SCNT begins when an egg is taken from a female donor and its nucleus is removed leaving a enucleated egg. A cell is then taken from the person who is being cloned and fused with the enucleated egg through use of electricity. These are only two ways that human cloning would be beneficial to the the medical field there are a plethora of cells that human cloning can help be beneficial with. A few major cells that will be discussed during this research report are the antibody cells CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90 and CD105.
CD34 is a type 1 transmembrane glyco phospho protein expressed by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelium and some fibroblasts. CD34 expression has been used as the hallmark used to identify hematopoietic stem cells for quite a few years. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have been used for years due their ability to expand and differentiate into all the lymphohematopoietic lineages upon cytokine or growth factor factor simulation and lose CD34 expression upon differentiation. There has been recent laboratory studies performed that show there is a conflict with the convention of the CD34 antibody. CD34’s extracellular domain has been shown to be homologous to that of CD43. CD43 is a protein involved in cell-cell adhesion, and CD34 has been shown to function as a negative regulator of cell adhesion. CD34 was found to associate with CrkL, but not Crkll, and is a substrate for PKC, and the activation of PKC is coupled with the surface expression of CD34.
The anti-CD45 cell is a type 1 transmembrane that consists of two intracellular phosphatase domains,
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