Civilization during the Black Death

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In 1347 AD Europe the second pandemic of bubonic plague appeared. The second pandemic was known as The Black Death because of the impact it left throughout Europe. The Black Death spread throughout Europe killing an estimated twenty-five million people, among the twenty-five million who caught the bubonic plague a generous amount was affected in France.

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When Europeans were exposed to the bacteria Yersinia pestis more likely than not they became infected. The bacteria are transmitted through three main ways. The disease originated in China in 1334 and was spread along the great trade routes to Constantinople transmitted by fleas and rats. Europe before the black death lacked severely in sanitation leading to a serious bacterial infection.

During this time in Europe, the black plague had an enormous effect on the development of modern civilization. The black plague caused major destruction in countries such as Asia, Africa, and Europe. These countries were not educated about this disease outbreak and how to treat it leading to a massive panic and the demise of many. An estimated 60% of the European population was killed off and most likely died from the black plague, Entire towns were wiped out. Some contemporary historians report that on occasion, there were not enough survivors remaining to bury the dead (Benedictow 2). This outbreak did cause for positive influences in the European culture leading to more jobs being available, rates in of development, and economic factors. A major positive factor is from the outbreak humans evolved gene variation helping to build a stronger immune system to help fight off bacterias, descendants of Europeans who survived the plague had their genes altered to make them more resistant to disease. It may explain why Europeans respond differently from other people to certain illnesses and autoimmune disorders ( Jimenez 1). If there was to be another outburst of the bubonic plague Europeans would have a stronger immune system to fight off the bacteria.

Another positive effect from the bubonic plague would be the renovation of hospitals across Europe. Before the bubonic plague hospitals were a place to put sick people in isolation in hopes that others would not get infected. Hospitals during medieval times did not have doctors or nurses but rather nuns and monks to pray on the sick. At this time hospitals were pretty much extra housing space for those that needed somewhere to go temporarily. During the black death, hospitals began their transformation into an actual hospital by caring for those with the disease. The failure of traditional medicine made Europeans realize their traditional medical practice needed to change, Medicine ceased to be theoretical and text-bound and became more observational and practical. Anatomy and surgery became parts of the medical program in universities (Jimenez 3). With the expansion of the medical practice more,

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