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Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas

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Date added: 19-03-22


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MARKSCHEME

A. In what ways according to Source A, has the implementation of the Supreme Court ruling deciding that separate public educational facilities for the races are inherently unequal, been disrupted?

It has been disrupted by the protests of mobs.
It has been disrupted by the complacency of local authorities to eliminate violent opposition.
It has been disrupted by the complacency of local authorities to disperse mobs.
Interference with the law and its due processes.
The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses. It is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Award [1] for each relevant point up to a maximum of [3].

B. What does Source B suggest about the characteristics of opposition to desegregation?
There was peaceful opposition to desegregation.
Opponents of desegregation felt that it was comparable to communism.
Men and women were involved in protests against desegregation
The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses. It is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Award [1] for each relevant point up to a maximum of [2].

With reference to its origin, purpose, and content, analyze the value and limitations of Source C and D for a historian studying the integration of Little Rock Central High School (1957).

SOURCE C

Value:

It is the expression of a contemporary opinion and therefore can give an insight into feelings at the time.
The source reveals the arguments deployed by a leading supporter of segregation.
It is a primary source

Limitations:

Because the source was written shortly after the decision was taken, it cannot show its longterm impact.
The extract's inclusion of emotive language suggests the need for caution in interpreting this source.
It comes from a very limited point of view which was common at the time.

SOURCE D

Value:

It is written a while after the desegregation of public education occurs, so it offers a revisionist point of view.
It offers insight into the magnitude of the massive resistance, by offering statistics.
The source reveals the arguments deployed by a leading supporter of segregation.

Limitations:

It is a secondary source of information
Due to it being a secondary source, there is a hint of bias as to which side the author agrees with.

The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses. It is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. The focus of the question is on the value and limitations of the source. If only value or limitations are discussed, award a maximum of [2]. Origin, purpose, and content should be used as supporting evidence to make relevant comments on the value and limitations. For [4] there must be at least one reference to each of them in either the value or the limitations.

Compare and contrast what Sources C and E reveal about the attitudes towards the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School.
Apply the mark bands that provide the best fit to the responses given by candidates and award credit wherever it is possible to do so. The following material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses. It is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required.

Indicative content

Comparisons:

Both sources demonstrate the existence of strong views on the issue of segregation in schools.
Both sources claim that the proposals therein would achieve the best possible educational outcome for students in public schools.
Both sources reveal the existence of diverse attitudes among important leaders in the state and federal systems regarding the question of desegregation of public schooling in the US.
Both sources are addressing a particular audience.

Contrasts:

Source A is completely in favor of desegregation in schools whereas Source C is strongly opposed to racial mixing.

Source A's views are based on an assumption that whites and blacks are fundamentally equal and therefore schools should be integrated whereas Source C's argument is based on a belief that it is unnatural and ungodly to mix the races.

Source A is encouraging positive and non-violent means of approaching the desegregation in public schools, whereas source C is inciting the opposite reaction.

Using the sources and your own knowledge evaluate the impact the integration of Little Rock Central High School had on desegregation of public schools in the US.

Apply the markbands that provide the best fit to the responses given by candidates and award credit wherever it is possible to do so. The following material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses. It is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. While it is expected that there will be coverage of at least two of the sources, candidates are not required to refer to all four sources in their responses.

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