# Change in the angle of vision

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### ABSTRACT:

My research question is based on the eye. “Does the change in the angle of vision (from normal to peripheral) effect the time taken to detect motion and color?” It is often seen that people find it difficult to see from the periphery of their eye and I will test this with two very simple and basic experiments. One of the experiments was performed on the computer and the other was performed with the aid of a 30 cm ruler. In the first experiment, which was to detect color, the person had to click the stop button when the color changed and in the second experiment, which was to detect motion, a person would stand and drop the ruler and the other person would catch it. What made this challenging was the fact that it was performed at various different angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° to the left and right side. I took the left side to be -30°, -60° and -90°. Then I had to perform the t-test on the values obtained and then compare the two experiments. What I found was that in most of the cases the angle of vision did affect the vision and that peripheral vision could detect motion better than color. This, I found out, is because of the difference in the t-values between the angles and also by the t-table value. I have also found through this experiment that motion is detected better compared to color. Theoretically and practically, this is because the rods are insensitive to color and more sensitive to movement as the pigment does not absorb color.

### 1.1: RESEARCH QUESTION:

DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM NORMAL TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR?

### 1.2: WHY I CHOSE THE TOPIC?

The human eye has always been a very intricate structure to understand and as a student of biology I have always wished to study the structure in detail. I have sought after finding out how such a small organ can be very vital for a human being and help them in their everyday life as it is estimated that 2/3rd of the information registered in the brain is due to the eye. The eye is a very sensitive organ therefore it is confined in three layers: the sclerotic coat which is the outer most coat and is a tough white layer before the cornea which helps the light to enter in the eye and also bends the rays for focusing, the choroid coat which is the middle layer and has a pigment called melanin which reduces the reflection of the rays and since it forms the layer before the iris it is also responsible for the color of the eye and the retina is the innermost layer of the eye which consist of the rod and the cones which are photoreceptors and are responsible for the images we see.

### 1.3: BACKGROUND RESEARCH:

The retina being the innermost layer of the eye covers 4/5th of the rear of the eye and has the light-sensitive receptors which are rods and three types of cones: cones absorbing long wavelength (red) middle wavelength (green) and short wavelength (blue) light which are about 565 nm, 535 nm and 440 nm[1] in size respectively and they are defined as "loosely" because (1) the names refer to peak sensitivities which are related to ability to absorb light rather than to the way the pigments would appear if we were to look at them; (2) monochromatic lights whose wavelengths are as mentioned above are not blue, green, and red but violet, blue-green, and yellow-green; and (3) if cones of only one type had to be stimulated we would not perceive blue, green, or red but probably violet, green, and yellowish-red instead.[2] Rods and cones have specific pigments on their tips used for light absorption and image formation. The receptors also contain transmembrane proteins called opsin and also retinal[3] which is a prosthetic group and they are derivatives of vitamin A. Rods record images of the shades of grey and they respond only in dim light and therefore the rods work at night. Rods do not respond to color, which is why there is difficulty in viewing colors in the dark. Also they are highly sensitive to low intensity light[4] and have a pigment called rhodopsin (gene present on chromosome 3)[5] or visual purple, which renew mainly in the dark. Cones record color images and are abundant in the fovea centralis and work mainly in bright light[6] and therefore work during the day and cones have three types of pigment called cyanolabe, chlorolabe and erythrolabe[7] which absorb blue, green and red light respectively. These pigments are renewed at a greater speed than the pigments on the rods. Each eye has approximately 120 million rods and 6-7 million cones[8]. Both rods and cones have vitamin A along with their other pigments, which is why deficiency of vitamin A will result in blindness. The intensity of light affects the rods and cones to a great extent as they function only according to the light provided. It is due to the cones that we are able to see more than 200 colors[9]. Rods are used to get images from the peripheral vision, which is why the image received by the rods is not very sharp. Rods are not concentrated in only one part of the retina like the cones. Since rods are sensitive to dim light, faint objects are seen more clearly from a peripheral vision. The cones are mainly gathered around the macula lutea otherwise called macula, which helps in giving very precise and sharp images of scenes at which the eye is directly aimed especially in bright light, as cones do not function in dim light. The fovea is not supplied with blood vessels like the rest of the retina which helps the cones to form as sharper image as there is no disruption in the vision and perceiving of the image whereas the rest of the retina is richly supplied with blood vessels which is why the image is not very sharp and is slightly disrupted. Color blindness is one of the diseases that occur when the pigments present in the cones are in an abnormal state. The diagram[10] below shows the arrangements of the rods and cones:

The ventral stream[11] (purple) is important in color recognition. The dorsal stream[12] (green) is also shown. They originate from a common source in the visual cortex. Visual information is then sent back via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm: a point where the two optic nerves meet and information is sent to the other side of the brain. A given cell that might respond best to long wavelength light if the light is relatively bright might then become responsive to all wavelengths if the stimulus is relatively dim. Some scientists believe that a different, relatively small, population of neurons may be responsible for color vision. These specialized neurons have receptive fields that can calculate the cone ratios. A "physical color" is a combination of pure spectral colors[13] in the visible range. Since there are many distinctly visible spectral colors, the set of the physical colors can be imagined as an infinite-dimensional vector space. In general, there is no such thing as a combination of spectral colors that we perceive; instead there are infinitely many possibilities. An object that absorbs some of the light reaching it and reflects the rest is called a pigment. If some wavelengths in the range of visible light are absorbed more than others, the pigment appears to us to be colored. The color perceived by us is not simply a matter of wavelength; it depends on wavelength content and on the properties of our visual system. The light that falls on the retina for straight vision is observed by the rods and cones and is sent to the optic nerves as electrical impulses and it reaches the brain after which it is sent back and we perceive the image brought by the impulse. For peripheral vision, the cones mainly perceive the light that falls on the retina and the impulse is sent through the optic nerve. The processing of the pathway of light is the same the main difference being that in straight vision, both perceive the light whereas in peripheral vision, it is the cones that work more when compared to rods.

### 2.1: HYPOTHESIS:

1. There is no difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- NULL HYPOTHESIS

2. There is a difference in the time taken to detect color and movement between straight and peripheral vision- POSITIVE HYPOTHESIS

### EXPERIMENT: 1:

- With increase in angle of vision there is no effect on the time taken to detect color or motion.

1. With increase in angle of vision there is a difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Positive hypothesis.

2. With increase in angle of vision there is no difference between the time taken to detect color or motion- Null hypothesis.

### EXPERIMENT: 2:

- Peripheral vision does not show any difference in detecting color or vision.

1. There is a difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Positive hypothesis.

2. There is no difference in detecting color or motion with peripheral vision- Null hypothesis.

### 2.2: EXPERIMENT:

To determine the angle and the time at which color and motion can be detected with the least time.

### 2.3: MATERIALS:

1. A 30 cm ruler 4. Post-it flags to measure angles and mark them

2. Angle chart 5. People

3. Graph that converts cm to time

### 2.4: PROCEDURE:

1. Hold the ruler in front of the person experimenting and make them stand at a certain angle of 0°, 30°, 60° or 90°.

2. From the angle at which the person is standing, hold the ruler and then without telling the person, drop the ruler.

3. Mark the cm at which the person catches the ruler and then calculate the time at which the person reacted by using a graph, which converts cm to time.

4. Mark the angles on a wall in front of the person sitting with post-its.

5. Make the person sit and observe the screen at different angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° on either side.

6. Make the person concentrate on the screen at one angle at a time and then when the screen shows green color, tell the person to click when she or he sees it.[14]

7. Record the time that appears on the screen.

### IMPROVEMENTS

1. Difference in angles each time the experiment is performed and also the differences in angles when a person is viewing the screen.

Due to difference in angles, it can either make it difficult or easier for color detection, which will alter the time readings and therefore the average.

The use of an angle chart in front of the person will help know the precise angle and therefore will not alter the readings or the average of time it took.

2. It is not very frequently seen that a computer makes a mistake but it is possible.

In this case the readings will be different and it will affect the average.

There is no improvement as such for this problem but repeating the experiment 5-6 times and taking the average can help overcome it.

3. If the ruler has some lines missing the measurement will not be taken accurately.

This may result in wrong readings and therefore result in the time and experiment going wrong.

The use of a brand new ruler will help get accurate readings as no lines would be blurred and it will be clear to see.

4. Observing the correct distance in cm at which the person has held the ruler after dropping.

To take the average, even the slightest mistake or wrong reading can alter the results.

Measuring should be very accurate. Once the person has caught the ruler, it should be measured and the error should be noted.

5. The graph used for converting distance to time may not be very accurate.

This may result in the calculation of wrong time and therefore may alter the results.

Using an electronic graph, if available, is recommended as it reduces the chances of errors.

### 2.6: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

MEAN: It is the average of the readings of each of the degrees in the data tables.

STANDARD DEVIATION: It is a measure of the individual observations and their dispersed nature around the mean.

FORMULA: Formula[15]

T-VALUE: It is the remainder of the mean of set a and set b divided by the square root of the sum of the square of the standard deviation of set a by the number of readings in set a and the square of the standard deviation of set b by the number of readings in set b.

### FORMULA:

Degree of Freedom = (n1+n2)-2

= (25+25)-2

= 48.

Value of t from the table: (2 tailed ‘t'value)

Take the value closest which is 45: [16]

At 0.05= 2.01

### 1. OBSERVATION OF COLOR AND TIME TAKEN:

OBSERVATION 1:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (ms)

90°

GREEN

433

60°

GREEN

428

30°

GREEN

367.8

GREEN

215.6

-30°

GREEN

302.2

-60°

GREEN

375

-90°

GREEN

434.8

### OBSERVATION 2:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

448.4

60°

GREEN

403.8

30°

GREEN

367.2

GREEN

202.2

-30°

GREEN

397

-60°

GREEN

402

-90°

GREEN

445

### OBSERVATION 3:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

450.8

60°

GREEN

300.4

30°

GREEN

262.4

GREEN

207.8

-30°

GREEN

260.8

-60°

GREEN

305

-90°

GREEN

443.4

### OBSERVATION 4:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

425.8

60°

GREEN

405

30°

GREEN

389.4

GREEN

283

-30°

GREEN

369.8

-60°

GREEN

409.8

-90°

GREEN

430.4

### OBSERVATION 5:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

428.2

60°

GREEN

412.4

30°

GREEN

262.8

GREEN

243.8

-30°

GREEN

250.2

-60°

GREEN

281.2

-90°

GREEN

325.2

### OBSERVATION 6:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

309.4

60°

GREEN

268.8

30°

GREEN

262.4

GREEN

234.4

-30°

GREEN

290.6

-60°

GREEN

359.2

-90°

GREEN

394

### OBSERVATION 7:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

365.6

60°

GREEN

297

30°

GREEN

294

GREEN

209.4

-30°

GREEN

253.4

-60°

GREEN

275

-90°

GREEN

296.6

### OBSERVATION 8:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

368.6

60°

GREEN

358.4

30°

GREEN

284.6

GREEN

235.4

-30°

GREEN

297.6

-60°

GREEN

353

-90°

GREEN

365.6

### OBSERVATION 9:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

380.4

60°

GREEN

367.6

30°

GREEN

289.2

GREEN

288.6

-30°

GREEN

390.2

-60°

GREEN

361.4

-90°

GREEN

384.4

### OBSERVATION 10:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

420.4

60°

GREEN

369.6

30°

GREEN

299

GREEN

268.2

-30°

GREEN

308.4

-60°

GREEN

368.6

-90°

GREEN

393.4

### OBSERVATION 11:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

347.4

60°

GREEN

317.4

30°

GREEN

237.8

GREEN

237.2

-30°

GREEN

306.8

-60°

GREEN

409.2

-90°

GREEN

349.2

### OBSERVATION 12:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

364.6

60°

GREEN

327.8

30°

GREEN

318.4

GREEN

286

-30°

GREEN

355.6

-60°

GREEN

369.2

-90°

GREEN

429.8

### OBSERVATION 13:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

333.6

60°

GREEN

268.6

30°

GREEN

253.2

GREEN

237.2

-30°

GREEN

390.4

-60°

GREEN

450.2

-90°

GREEN

565

### OBSERVATION 14:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

344

60°

GREEN

272

30°

GREEN

215.6

GREEN

215.2

-30°

GREEN

232

-60°

GREEN

311

-90°

GREEN

398

### OBSERVATION 15:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

321.4

60°

GREEN

302.4

30°

GREEN

277.6

GREEN

249.6

-30°

GREEN

280.6

-60°

GREEN

296.6

-90°

GREEN

455.8

### OBSERVATION 16:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

305.6

60°

GREEN

271.8

30°

GREEN

252.6

GREEN

236.6

-30°

GREEN

252.6

-60°

GREEN

340

-90°

GREEN

355.8

### OBSERVATION 17:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

309

60°

GREEN

301.8

30°

GREEN

299.6

GREEN

296.6

-30°

GREEN

300.6

-60°

GREEN

306.2

-90°

GREEN

347.2

### OBSERVATION 18:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

355

60°

GREEN

347

30°

GREEN

318.2

GREEN

297.6

-30°

GREEN

306.4

-60°

GREEN

323.6

-90°

GREEN

366

### OBSERVATION 19:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

571.6

60°

GREEN

470.4

30°

GREEN

321.8

GREEN

292.6

-30°

GREEN

345.4

-60°

GREEN

351.2

-90°

GREEN

428.2

### OBSERVATION 20:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

339.8

60°

GREEN

318.6

30°

GREEN

306.8

GREEN

286

-30°

GREEN

322.2

-60°

GREEN

339.8

-90°

GREEN

347.4

### OBSERVATION 21:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

360.4

60°

GREEN

351.4

30°

GREEN

339

GREEN

301.2

-30°

GREEN

327

-60°

GREEN

356.8

-90°

GREEN

362

### OBSERVATION 22:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

472

60°

GREEN

418.8

30°

GREEN

392

GREEN

353.6

-30°

GREEN

379.6

-60°

GREEN

402

-90°

GREEN

451

### OBSERVATION 23:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

367

60°

GREEN

351

30°

GREEN

339.8

GREEN

316

-30°

GREEN

333

-60°

GREEN

375.6

-90°

GREEN

391.8

### OBSERVATION 24:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

425

60°

GREEN

412.6

30°

GREEN

376.8

GREEN

329.8

-30°

GREEN

357

-60°

GREEN

385.4

-90°

GREEN

401.2

### OBSERVATION 25:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

COLOR

TIME TAKEN TO CLICK

90°

GREEN

297

60°

GREEN

256

30°

GREEN

223.8

GREEN

189.2

-30°

GREEN

216.2

-60°

GREEN

239.6

-90°

GREEN

262

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

25.4

225

60°

19

196

30°

18.2

192

14.8

175

-30°

20.2

203

-60°

23.7

213

-90°

27

231

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

25.8

227

60°

24.1

220

30°

20.2

203

18.1

192

-30°

19.9

201

-60°

22.7

216

-90°

25.5

225

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

29.6

240

60°

27

231

30°

22

210

14.3

169

-30°

19.8

199

-60°

25.4

225

-90°

28.9

239

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

27.6

238

60°

25

212

30°

18.4

193

15.2

179

-30°

17.9

190

-60°

23.9

218

-90°

27

231

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

27.6

238

60°

22.9

218

30°

17.4

183

13.7

169

-30°

18.2

192

-60°

21

208

-90°

28.2

237

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

29.1

239

60°

27.6

231

30°

22.9

218

14.3

169

-30°

20.8

209

-60°

25.3

223

-90°

28.5

239

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

23.3

217

60°

19.8

199

30°

16

181

12.9

165

-30°

17.2

189

-60°

20.4

206

-90°

24.6

221

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

27.3

229

60°

24.9

225

30°

18.7

196

16.4

181

-30°

17.3

187

-60°

23.7

213

-90°

28.1

237

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

25.5

225

60°

22.8

216

30°

18.9

200

15.2

179

-30°

17.4

183

-60°

22

209

-90°

24.7

220

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

27.5

231

60°

22.6

215

30°

19.3

198

13.2

168

-30°

17.4

183

-60°

22.8

216

-90°

26.1

228

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

25.6

226

60°

19.8

199

30°

14.9

176

10.3

150

-30°

15.1

178

-60°

18.2

192

-90°

25.8

227

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

27.8

235

60°

20.1

201

30°

14.2

171

12.9

165

-30°

14.5

168

-60°

18.7

196

-90°

26.3

229

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

26.5

226

60°

23.6

217

30°

20.5

205

18.2

192

-30°

20.2

203

-60°

25.1

222

-90°

26.9

231

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

25.6

226

60°

20.1

201

30°

17.8

189

13.6

165

-30°

18.2

192

-60°

19.9

201

-90°

25.1

222

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

23.6

217

60°

19.1

198

30°

16.2

182

15.9

179

-30°

16.4

181

-60°

20

204

-90°

24.5

220

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

21.3

209

60°

20.1

201

30°

16.6

184

12.5

160

-30°

16.9

182

-60°

21.2

207

-90°

24.4

219

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

23.1

216

60°

19.7

199

30°

14.3

169

9.8

142

-30°

14.6

170

-60°

18.4

193

-90°

22.9

218

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

26.4

225

60°

17.6

187

30°

14.8

175

10.7

153

-30°

14.5

168

-60°

17.3

187

-90°

24.9

225

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

26.2

223

60°

23.5

217

30°

19.7

199

17.3

187

-30°

18.4

193

-60°

23.8

216

-90°

27.9

235

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

20.3

203

60°

17.8

189

30°

16.4

180

13.6

165

-30°

16.9

182

-60°

18.5

195

-90°

21.7

204

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

23.9

218

60°

20.4

206

30°

18.2

192

17.6

187

-30°

19.5

199

-60°

21.3

209

-90°

25.1

222

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

21.7

204

60°

18.1

192

30°

16.5

183

12.4

158

-30°

16.8

181

-60°

17.2

189

-90°

20.9

205

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

26.5

226

60°

22.7

216

30°

17.8

188

14.6

170

-30°

17.9

190

-60°

23.4

215

-90°

27.3

229

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

22.4

210

60°

20.1

201

30°

18.9

200

17.2

181

-30°

19.3

198

-60°

21.5

208

-90°

23.7

213

DEGREE OF ANGLE

DISTANCE (cm)

TIME

90°

24.9

225

60°

24.2

218

30°

19.6

207

16.3

180

-30°

18.5

195

-60°

23.8

216

-90°

24.7

220

### 1. COLOR- GREEN:

DEGREE

MEAN

STANDARD DEVIATION

90°

381.76

64.36

60°

343.944

59.70

30°

302.072

50.82

260.512

43.72

-30°

313.024

51.68

-60°

349.664

49.07

-90°

392.928

60.90

T-VALUES:

0-30: 2.8952363

0-60: 3.4570507

0-90: 2.6052811

30-60: 0.5618144

30-90: -0.2899552

60-90: -0.8517696

0- -30: 2.0256836

0- -60: -3.3830509

0- -90: 0

-30- -60: -5.4087345

-30- -90: 2.0256836

-60- -90: 3.3830509

### 2. DISTANCE (cm):

DEGREE

MEAN

STANDARD DEVIATION

90°

223.92

10.32

60°

208.2

12.56

30°

192.96

13.92

171.2

12.81

-30°

188.64

11.09

-60°

208.84

12.30

-90°

225.08

9.38

T-VALUES:

0-30: -18.5596207

0-60: 14.455333

0-90: 53.1980438

30-60: 33.014954

30-90: 34.6384231

60-90: -67.6563771

0- -30: -13.1820298

0- -60: -16.0648178

0- -90: 41.6760218

-30- -60: -2.882788

-30- -90: 28.493992

-60- -90: -25.611204

DEGREE

T-VALUE

0°- 0°

9.80113964

30°- 30°

-10.60658

60°- 60°

-10.960664

90°- 90°

-12.105927

-30°- -30°

-11.765113

-60°- -60°

-14.122822

-90°- -90°

-13.61975

### COLOR AND TIME:

DEGREE

ANALYSIS

INTERPRETATION

0°-30°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. There is a difference between the times taken to detect color between the two angles.

Therefore, we consider the positive hypothesis in this situation

0°-60°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles.

We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation.

0°-90°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows the difference taken in the time to detect the color between the two angles.

Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation.

30°-60°

Since the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, we can assume that there is no change in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles.

In this case we would consider the null hypothesis.

30°-90°

The calculated t-value is smaller and therefore shows either no change in the time or negligible change in time to detect color between the two angles.

Therefore in this case we consider the null hypothesis.

60°-90°

Again here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles.

Therefore, here we will again consider the positive hypothesis.

0°- -30°

Here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value and therefore there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles.

In this case we consider the positive hypothesis.

0°- -60°

Here, the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, which shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles.

In this case we consider the null hypothesis.

0°- -90°

There is no difference or negligible difference in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value.

Here we will consider the null hypothesis.

-30°- -60°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the color between the two angles.

Therefore we consider the null hypothesis

-30°- -90°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the color between the two angles

Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis

-60°- -90°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles

Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis

Therefore, for this particular experiment, we accept the null hypothesis, as we can see there is a very slight change in the time and the t-values.

### DEGREE

ANALYSIS

EVALUATION

0°-30°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. There is no difference between the times taken to detect motion between the two angles.

Therefore, we consider the null hypothesis in this situation

0°-60°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles.

We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation.

0°-90°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference taken in the time to detect the motion between the two angles.

Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation.

30°-60°

Since the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value, we can assume that there is some change in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles.

In this case we would consider the positive hypothesis.

30°-90°

The calculated t-value is greater and therefore shows there is change in the time to detect motion between the two angles.

Therefore in this case we consider the positive hypothesis.

60°-90°

Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. This shows that there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles.

Therefore, here we will consider the null hypothesis.

0°- -30°

Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value and therefore there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles.

In this case we consider the null hypothesis.

0°- -60°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles.

In this case we consider the null hypothesis.

0°- -90°

There is difference in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value.

Here we will consider the positive hypothesis.

-30°- -60°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the motion between the two angles.

Therefore we consider the null hypothesis

-30°- -90°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the motion between the two angles

Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis

-60°- -90°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles

Therefore we consider the null hypothesis

In this particular experiment also we will consider the null hypothesis, as there is very little change in the t-values and the time.

### EVALUATION

0°-0°

The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value that shows difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis.

30°-30°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis.

60°-60°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Therefore here again we consider the null hypothesis.

90°-90°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Therefore here we consider the null hypothesis.

-30°- -30°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Here we consider the null hypothesis.

-60°- -60°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

Here again we consider the null hypothesis.

-90°- -90°

The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles.

We take the null hypothesis into consideration here.

Therefore, even when we compare the two we do not find much difference between the values of the angles making it very negligible. Therefore we accept the null hypothesis overall for the experiment.

GRAPH:

Color:

Motion:

Motion and color:

From the above graph we can observe that at 0° the time taken to hold the ruler (distance in cm) is less than that the time taken to notice the color. Taking values, we see that the time taken to hold the ruler is around 180 seconds whereas to see the color it is 260 seconds. This shows that there is a difference of about almost 80 seconds. This graph shows that motion takes less time to be detected when compared to color from the peripheral vision. This may be due to the fact that rods are not color-sensitive and therefore they cannot perceive color vision as well as motion. Also we can see that at 0° color takes the least time to be detected when compared to the other degree of angles. This is because it is focused on the retina that contains the maximum cones and since cones are sensitive to color we can see color better here.

### CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

Peripheral vision is noted for being course, especially at detecting colors and distinguishing shapes. Receptor cells on the retina are denser at the center and least dense at the edges. In addition, cone cells, which detect colors, are concentrated at the center of the retina, while rod cells that cannot detect color are concentrated near the periphery. Peripheral vision is better in the dark because cone cells are not very useful when there is little light or color. It is also superb at detecting motion. Rod cells, concentrated at the edge, detect motion.[17] Peripheral vision detects more motion and less detail because it's more important peripherally to detect motion and not detail -- because it's most important to know that something is sneaking up on you, and it's less important to know what it is.[18]

In conclusion, we can see that there is difference between the time taken to observe color and motion. But as the graph suggests, the motion is observed better than color due to the fact that rods are insensitive to light for peripheral vision.

49

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 467.

[5] http://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/montag/vandplite/pages/chap_9/ch9p1.html

[6] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 468.

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_colours

[14] www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php

[15] MICROSOFT EXCEL, 2007.

[16] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 7

[17] http://www.eye-therapy.com/Peripheral-Vision/

[18] http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=24988.0;prev_next=next

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