Causes of Breast Cancer

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Cancer is the most lethal and dangerous diseases for human beings. Huge resources have been spent to acknowledge breast cancer evolution, to figure out causes and to develop methods of treating breast cancer. For all these researchers main point is to understand cancer development pathway, and to increase overall survival percentage.

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Nowadays, scientists are faced with the hard problem, and they are inability to cure it once the breast cancer developed. The key to prevent breast cancer is to analyze and learn more about the biological mechanisms which cause it, and try to identify very early changes. Human breast cancer evolution is not clear and defined. Researchers have not been able to identify early morphological, cellular, or molecular changes which caused to develop breast cancer disease. These research article based on five different investigators scientific articles about breast cancer origin and evolution, molecular evolution of the breast cancer, gene mutations which cause breast cancer, tumor cell growth in human breast cancer.

Many research are done to find solution and prevent breast cancer in early stages. Peter T Simpson article explains invasive breast cancer evolution and development. The whole point of this article is to analyze invasive breast cancer molecules, for better understanding its development. Invasive cancer evolution begins in the lobules; women breast glands that produced milk. After developing invasive cancer cells, they break lobule and spread to the other parts of the body. According to Peter T Simpson article, breast cancer cell development a new ways described in the last a few years. Most of the research have the same result, that the Nuclear grade connected with genetic changes or mutations in breast cancer cells (Simpson, 2005). Based on “Molecular Evolution of Breast Cancer” article there are low?grade and high?grade invasive cancer development. During low?grade invasive cancer cells development, ER (estrogen receptor) and PgR (progesterone receptor) are positive and Her-2 is negative, this means that cancer cells receive signals from progesterone receptor and stop growing (Simpson, 2005). On the other hand, during high?grade development, there are nuclear abnormalities, estrogen receptor is negative and Her-2 is positive. This means that estrogen is supporting cancer cells growth and spread of (Simpson, 2005). However, even a single changes of nuclear molecules can cause breast cancer.

According to Kornelia Polyak article, researchers beginning to understand cancer cells behavior relating to tumor heterogeneity and development. “Breast Cancer: Origins and Evolution” article explains tumor cells, analyzes tumor cells, gives information about evolution of tumor cell based on genetic changes and gene expression changes in organisms (epigenetic). The two common models that this article describes are the cancer stem cell and the clonal evolution hypotheses (Polyak, 2007). As in every model, this two also sharing similarities and have differences between them. The main difference of this two hypotheses is that cancer cells are offspring of cancer stem cells,

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