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Capital budgeting can be defined as the process of analyzing, evaluating, and deciding whether resources should be allocated to a project or not. Capital budgeting addresses the issue of where funds should be disbursed over a long period of time. The process of capital budgeting ensures the optimal placement of funds and resources. It also helps management work toward the goal of maximizing shareholder wealth. The method used by most large companies to evaluate investment projects is called the net present value (NPV). It is a standard method for the monetary worth of long-term projects. It measures the surplus or deficit of cash flows, in present value (PV) terms, once financing charges are met. The NPV is used for budgeting and is widely used throughout economics. The way NPV works is simple. When firms make investments, they are spending money they have obtained from investors. Investors expect a return on the money that they give to firms, so a firm should accept an investment only if the present value of the cash flow is greater than the cost of making the investment. However, decision-makers must somehow verify that any decisions made based on the NPV can be flexible. This flexibility is in place in the event that factors affecting the decision later change. NPV compares the value of a dollar today to the value of that same dollar in the future, taking inflation and returns into account.   If the NPV of a prospective project is positive, it should be accepted.   However, if the NPV is negative, the project should probably be rejected because cash flows will also be negative. Internal rate of return (IRR) is the expected rate of return that can be earned on a capital project. The IRR is a calculated interest rate based on the cash flows of a project or investment. The calculation estimates what the future rate of return is but translates it into present cash value. IRR is typically a calculation for businesses to use in determining the NPV of its money when considering income and initial costs for starting a business. IRR is typically an estimate and will often differ from the actual execution of a project.   However, stronger growth would still be expected from a project with a greater IRR. Like the NPV calculation, the IRR evaluation also determines if a company should accept or reject a project proposal. A project should be accepted when the IRR is greater than the rate of return and should be rejected if the IRR is less than the rate of return. When evaluating mutually exclusive project, the projects with the greatest IRR should be accepted .The project with the greatest IRR would be assumed to provide the most cash flow growth. An IRR calculation for a project can also be compared against prevailing rates of return for alternate investments such as an investment in the securities market.   If a company cannot generate project alternatives with IRRs greater than the returns that can be generated from alternate investments,