Childhood obesity is becoming a worldwide concern given the potential health implications in the future. Obese children are more likely to suffer physical and mental health problems and are likely to develop into obese adults (Labayen, Ruiz et al. 2012), thereby increasing the long term risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and stroke.
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The cause of childhood obesity is multifactorial, including hereditary factors, comorbidities, dietary habits and physical activity. There is much debate as to the impact of breastfeeding during the early stages of life and how it correlates with childhood obesity compared with formula-fed newborns. Breast milk is nutritionally balanced to provide infants with all dietary requirements during the early stages of life. It also provides antibodies to reduce infection risks in newborns. Breast milk constitutes the appropriate amounts of protein, water, fat and sugar for a newborn and changes composition over time to adapt to a growing child’s needs. Formula tends to be higher in protein and fat than the baby actually requires and this excessive intake has been linked with adiposity (Hernell 2011). Marseglia et al have reviewed the potential impact of key breast milk constituents thought to play a role in reducing obesity risk (Marseglia, Manti et al. 2015). There have been a number of recent reviews discussing the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity, all of which have concluded that breastfeeding confers a protective effect against childhood obesity and being overweight (Horta and Victora 2013, Aguilar Cordero, Sánchez López et al. 2014, Lefebvre and John 2014, Yan, Liu et al. 2014). The largest reduction in obesity risk was 81%, reported in a study of females aged 11 years of who had been breastfed for more than three months compared with controls who had never been breastfed (Panagiotakos, Papadimitriou et al. 2008). The males in the same study had a reduced risk of 72% and both results were statistically significant. However, other literature reports either no association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity (Burdette, Whitaker et al. 2006, Huus, Ludvigsson et al. 2008, Jing, Xu et al. 2014), or an increased risk of obesity following breastfeeding of 9% (Kwok, Schooling et al. 2010), 10% (Novaes, Lamounier et al. 2012), 11% (Buyken, Karaolis-Danckert et al. 2008), 14% (Sabanayagam, Shankar et al. 2009), 18% He (2000), 29% (Al-Qaoud and Prakash 2009), 34% (Neutzling, Hallal et al. 2009), 40% (Toschke, Martin et al. 2007) and 83% (Araújo, Victora et al. 2006), although none of which were statistically significant. Some studies suggest that there is a dose-response relationship, with increased duration of breastfeeding resulting in a decreased prevalence of being obese in childhood (von Kries, Koletzko et al. 2000, Fallahzadeh, Golestan et al. 2009, Griffiths, Smeeth et al. 2009,
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