Global warming is defined as temperature increase world wide due to green house gases emission and cause deletion to ozone layer . It mainly occurred due to the burning of fuel, Green house gases include chloro- fluorocarbon (CFC), carbon dioxide, nitrous dioxide, methane, sulphur dioxide. Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxides are the major gases that cause global warming, co2 and so2 are mainly emitted from the burning of fossil fuel.
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Bio fuels are replaced for petroleum or fuels from fossils and they emit very low amount of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide . The bio-fuels are also used as the either partially or totally substitute in vehicle engines .
Bio-fuels are the fuels obtain from plants (www.biomass.uk.com/glossary.php). And these fuels are gaseous, liquids or solids. Liquid bio fuels are categorised into bio diesel, bio alcohol and bio Ethanol.ethanol is bio-fuel, is mainly produced from corn while alcohol distillation. Ethanol is a produced more from sugar cane and maize as compare to the corn .
According to the case, Brazil is one of the highest producers of ethanol from sugarcane (Goldemberg, 2007).Ethanol is a good alternative for gasoline (Moreira and Goldemberg, 1999),ethanol produced in brazil from a sugar cane can be used as a substitute for gasoline(Mathews, 2007), If ethanol is from agricultural product it does not contain any impurities like sulphur dioxide which commonly found in fossil fuels and proper practices of agriculture reduce green house gases(Goldemberg, 2007), united state states producing ethanol from maize leads to deforestation (Laurence (2007) ),reduction of greenhouse gases cannot reduced only by decreasing but also decreased by environmental indicator factor like deforestation and reducing ash (Searchinger et al. (2008)).when compare with gasoline produced from maize and sugarcane ,maize emits 18%less CO2 where as from sugarcane reduce about 91%less CO2(Goldemberg, 2007).the world 6%of land is used for cultivating crops, so bio-fuels results price of crops increased(FAO, 2007).but not all bio-fuels have same impact on prices of food ,the ethanol produced from sugar in brazil have no impact on sugar prices (Goldemberg, 2007).The larger amount of ethanol is exported from southern hemisphere countries like brazil, which has good agricultural resources like land and climatic conditions suitable for sugar cane used for ethanol production(Mathews, 2007),so production from sugarcane decrease deforestation( Searchinger et al. (2008)). The use of bio-fuels decreases pollution, deforestation and also no effect on the price of crops.
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