During the last few decades, internationalisation of banks has been increased. It often occurs in developing countries, where foreign banks enter their market. As a foreign bank, they have to overcome many problems when planning to establish their presence across border. Among them choosing a market is a finical job, where they have to bother about factors like culture, language and domestic bank regulations in the host countries and regulations differ significantly across countries.
The banking regulations of host country that effect the location decision can be of Regulations on bank activities and banking-commerce links. Regulations on entry of domestic and foreign banks. Regulations on capital adequacy. Deposit insurance design. Supervision. Regulations on easing private-sector monitoring of banks. Government ownership of banks. (James R. Barth, Gerard Caprio, Jr. and Ross Levine) During 19th century, there were many barriers by the nations towards the foreign banks. These barriers can be broadly classified as explicit barriers and implicit barriers. Explicit barriers may be the rules and regulations limiting entry of foreign banks, their behaviour. Treating foreign banks differently from domestic banks is an explicit barrier. Prevention of the entry and expansion of foreign banks by the government in favour of the local or domestic banks is a type of implicit barrier. By the middle of 19th century, there appeared a trend of lowering the barriers over time, which helps the banks to go global. It’s found to be a lower penetration rate of foreign banks, about 10% in developed countries, whereas a much higher level is in developing countries, about 50%. A higher trend towards lowering both barriers over time was appeared in developing countries governments which results in a higher foreign bank penetration rate. Considering ‘New Europe’ consisting developing countries like Poland, Hungary reduced ownership of state banks along with implicit and explicit barriers towards the entry of foreign banks and allows them to control most of their banking assets (Allen N. Berger).This happens mainly because of their transition from socialism. More over in some cases such as Estonia, Czech Republic the foreign banks takes over 90% of market shares. Some nations have explicit rules that limit the behaviour and expansion of foreign banks even after entry. For example, in India, “foreign banks that purchase shares of local Indian banks are restricted to a maximum of 10 percent of voting rights and also face explicit additional capital requirements and permission for branch expansion”
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