Artificial Intelligence – Present and Future Uses

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Artificial Intelligence: Present and Future uses What is the definition of Artificial Intelligence? Lets’ break it down in to individual words to get an accurate definition. First, Artificial: made by human skill; produced by humans (http://dictionary. com). Second, Intelligence: capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude for grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc. (http://dictionary. com). Therefore, if we put the two words together we create a unique and complex definition. Artificial Intelligence is defined as: tools that exhibit human intelligence and behavior including self-learning robots, expert systems, voice recognition, natural and automated translation; Technology and learning portfolio. (1997, August) Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www. unesco. org/education/educprog/lwf/doc/portfolio/portindex. htm. Artificial Intelligence is being used presently, and will be used in the future in numerous exciting ways. Present day uses| Future uses| Military: *Weapons *Aircraft| Games: *Chess computer| Medicine: *Joystick surgery *Computer assisted surgery| Robots: *Medicine *Workforce| Education: *Educational tools| Integration: *Cybernetics *Reverse engineering| Table 0 Present day uses: Military The two primary uses of A. I. for the Military are in their weapons and aircraft. Stanford University won a two million dollar defense department grant for building an autonomous SUV named Stanley. This vehicle navigated a 131 mile off road race course, by itself, in six hours and fifty-three minutes. It eventually won the race against another autonomous vehicle. Its average land speed was 19. 1 mph, which is the average speed of a Military convoy. Another type of autonomous vehicle is called the sword. Basically, it’s a miniature tank with multiple automatic weapons and a grenade launcher attached. It can be controlled remotely, but its primary use is autonomous missions. It can navigate through a war zone and take out ground troops from behind. The sword can also be sent into a hostile situation and cause a diversion, allowing the soldiers to quell the situation; Military applications. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 6, 2010, from http://www. aaai. org/AITopics/pmwiki/pmwiki. php/AITopics/Military. New military assault vehicles are being fitted with voice recognition software. This makes the communication between the on-board computer and the soldiers much faster. A soldier can speak a command into the computer while he/she is still driving, firing a weapon or tracking the enemy. The weapons are also voice command activated, so they can be fired while the soldier is conducting another duty. The main reason these vehicles are being made is to save soldiers lives, while protecting our country at the same time. This new technology will save lives, it will save even more lives as the technology grows; Military applications. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 6, 2010, from http://www. aaai. org/AITopics/pmwiki. php/AITopics/Military. Lastly, the F-35 Lightning Multi-role fighter from Lockheed Martin is the top of the line smart fighter jet. The F-35 is equipped with voice recognition software, making pilot to plane communications faster. The weapons are also voice activated, so the pilot can multi-task in an engagement. It is also equipped with an Automatic target recognition and classification system (ATRC), which is used to identify specific targets. The ATRC system is used in tandem with an Active electronically scanned array radar system (AESA). This system has a synthetic aperture radar mapping mode to provide the pilot with more precise search and targeting capabilities. Basically, the radar system maps the general area, and gives more accurate searches and targets faster; F-35 Lightning II Multi-role Fighter. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 6, 2010, from http://www. erospaceweb. org/aircraft/fighter/f35/. Present day uses: Medicine The medical profession uses every advance they have access to, saving lives is their main objective. The da Vinci surgical system is a revolutionary new tool used to aid surgeons during surgery. This system uses four main components; the Surgeon Console, also called the Hermes control center, where the surgeon controls the surgery, the Patient Side cart makes the surgical contact with the patient, using robotic arms to hold and use the instruments while making the small incisions for the surgery. Next is the Endo Wrist Instruments, these instruments are used to simulate human surgical movements. Each instrument has its own function, from suturing to clamping. The Wrist instruments are held on with quick release levers for quick changes during the surgery. This instrument is used to control rotating, pivoting and the force applied from the robotic arms. Finally, the Insite Vision System with high resolution 3D endoscope and image processing capabilities. This system allows the surgeon to see inside the patient during the surgery, giving the surgeon an advantage over regular surgery. The Insite vision system sends clear, filtered and noise free real time video. The following chart shows the cost of the da Vinci surgical system compared to the competitor’s; Robotic surgery. (2005). Retrieved September 6, 2010, from http://biomed. brown. edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2005_Groups/04/davinci. html. Market Information of the Robot Surgical Systems Equipment| Costs| Company Equipment Descriptions| Da Vinci Surgical System| $1 Million| Intuitive Surgical: Robot-assistant with arms to connect surgical instruments| Zeus Robot Surgical System| $975,000| Computer Motion: Robot-assistant with arms to connect surgical instruments| Aesop 3000| $80,000| Computer Motion: Voice-controlled endoscope-positioning robot| Hermes Control Center| Request price quota| Computer Motion: Centralized system used to network an intelligent OR| Socrates Robotic Tele-collaboration System| Request price quota| Computer Motion: Allows shared control of Aesop 3000 from different locations| *Former Computer Motion systems that are now owned by Intuitive Surgical. Sources: Table 1 from Journal of Healthcare Management 46:4 July/August 2003 As you can see the initial cost is high, but the long term health and financial benefits for the patient and hospital are amazing. The following table will illustrate these facts. Estimate of Initial investment and cost savings per heart valve surgery for da Vinci Market price Maintenance/year Physician training| $1 million $100,000 $250,000| Cost of one inpatient hospital day| $2,000| Reduced inpatient hospital days for heart procedures| 4. 5 days| Cost saving per heart procedure due to reduced hospital stay| $9,000 per heart valve| Extra procedure cost| $2000 more per operation| Surgical assistance| $175,000 for fourth arm(compared to $80,610 per year for extra OR nurse)| Sources: Table 2 from Journal of Healthcare Management 46:4 July/August 2003 Salary Survey 2004. Nursing Management 35: 7 July 2004 Pages 28-32 American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2002 Present day uses: Education An abundance of people complain about the education system these days, most of them don’t like the way it works. There are two A. I. tutoring systems available now that can help the system work well. The SimBionic intelligent agent tool kit and the Task Tutor tool kit are the top of the line in A. I. assisted tutoring. The SimBionic tool kit allows the instructor to specify behaviors for simulated forces, without pre-programming. The behavior authoring tool allows the instructor to create an “entity” behavior using “drag and drop” interface to build the complex behaviors. After the behaviors are created, they can be re-used and modified for other scenarios. For example, an instructor creates a simulated battle scene where the primary group is being attacked from three sides. The intelligent simulation automates the enemy, making the simulation more realistic, challenging and engaging; Stottler Henke Inc. , (2002), Simbionic tool kit. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from http://www. stottlerhenke. com/solutions/training/simbionic. htm. The second tutoring system is the Task Tutor tool kit. This system allows the instructor to produce procedure templates that specify the range of “actions” that are correct within each scenario. The system will also list the knowledge and skills demonstrated as the student completes the simulation. These templates are created by the instructor without programming, using a graphical interface to show the sequences of actions to the tutoring system. When the simulation is done, the tutor shows the student what principles they had correct or incorrect. It also gives explanations why they were wrong or right. Also, the tutor will answer “what do I do now” or why do I do that” using hints, allowing the student to solve the problem themselves. There are many subject areas this type of learning can be used for; Stottler Henke Inc. ,(2002), Task Tutor tool kit. Retrieved August,19,2010 from http://www. stottlerhenke. com/solutions/training/ttt. htm. The following graphic lists these subject areas: Future uses: Games In 1997 a computer named “Deep Blue” played and defeated the current world champion Garry Kasparov, taking the world championship from Mr. Kasparov for that year. Deep Blue is a computer that uses artificial intelligence to help make strategic decisions while playing chess. I know, this is not a future use, but the idea behind this computer has/is being expanded. Some current video games can predict what the player will do by analyzing how he/she has played in the past. Future computer games will be able to interact with the player, assisting with decision making and strategy; Waltz, D. (1996). Artificial Intelligence: Realizing the ultimate promises of computing. Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. cs. washington. edu/homes/lazowsk/era/ai. html. Future uses: Robots Noel Sharkey, a professor of AI and robotics, believes the way that artificial intelligence is growing we could see completely autonomous robots within 40 to 50 years. Also, that they could be conducting crash site surgeries, so the injured person wouldn’t die during the trip to the O. R. They could also do the smaller, faster, and less invasive surgeries, freeing up surgeons to do the more invasive and complicated ones; Lomas, N. (2010, March 4). Artificial Intelligence: How advanced will AI be in 2100? Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. silicon. om/technology/software/2010/03/04/artificial-intelligence-how-advanced-will-ai-be-in-2100-39745432. Mr. Sharkey also believes robots could join the workforce in the future, having robotic receptionists in doctors, lawyers, and large corporate offices. Future uses: Integration Kevin Warwick, a professor of cybernetics, believes that by the year 2050 intelligent machines/robots might be dominant. Or, humans will have “upgraded” themselves to “cyborgs”. If machines/robots are dominant by 2050, Mr. Warwick believes we will be living in a “terminator scenario”. If you haven’t seen the movies, humans would be living batteries to keep the machines charged up. But, he is more inclined to believe that humans will upgrade themselves with different forms of cybernetics. This means computer components will be integrated into the human body, enhancing they systems that the components are linked to; Lomas, N. (2010, March 4). Artificial Intelligence: How advanced will AI be in 2100? Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. silicon. com/technology/software/2010/03/04/artificial-intelligence-how-advanced-will-ai-be-in-2100-39745432/. Ray Kurzweil, futurist, believes that by 2050 we will be past the Singularity, and we will have fully human-level AI. He also believes that we will have reverse engineered the human brain 20 years from now. He believes humans and intelligent technology will “merge” and create “hybrid” intelligence. The technological side of our merge will continue to grow intellectually,” expanding our brains capacity a billion fold by 2045”. By 2100, the expansion will be trillions of trillions fold and we will begin to expand beyond our solar system. " How advanced will AI be in 2100? Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. silicon. com/technology/software/2010/03/04/artificial-intelligence-how-advanced-will-ai-be-in-2100-39745432/. “The best way to predict the future is to invent it” – Alan Kay; Beekman, G. Beekman, B. (2009,p. 380, 397) Tomorrow’s technology and you (9th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. This statement is a, very general, way of summing up this paper. Everything I’ve spoken about in the preceding pages started as a sparkle in the eye of a learned inventor or scientist. The only limit to the imagination of these people is the level of technology they had to begin at. In fact, most of these people were trying to advance current technology when they introduced their new ideas. Some of these ideas are just theories or, but these theories and ideas stimulate intelligent people into creating new, cutting edge technology. For this reason, artificial intelligence should be studied and researched. The present uses of A. I. re exciting, but the future of A. I. will yield many more astounding uses. “The Future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams” -Eleanor Roosevelt- References Beekman, G. Beekman, B. (2009, p. 380, 397). Tomorrow’s technology and you (9th ed. ). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Definition of Artificial. http://dictionary. com Definition of Intelligent. http://dictionary. com F-35 Lightning II multi-role fighter. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 6, 2010 from. http://www. aerospace. org/aircraft/fighter/f35/ Lomas, N. (2010, March 4). Artificial Intelligence: how advanced will AI be in 2100? Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. silicon. om/technology/software/2010/03/04/artificial- intelligence-how-advanced-will-ai-be-in-2100-39745432/ Military applications. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 6, 2010 from http://www. aaai. org/AITopics/pmwiki. php/AITopics/Military Robotic Surgery. (2005). Retrieved September 6, 2010 from http://biomed. brown. edu/Courses/BI108_2005_Groups/04/davinci. html Roosevelt, E. (n. d. ). Direct quote. Message posted to Eleanor Roosevelt quotes, archived at http://thinkexist. com/quotation/the_future_belongs_to_those_who_believe_in_the/13262. html Stottler Henke Inc. , (2002), SimBionic tool kit. Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. tottlerhenke. com/solutions/training/simbionic. htm Stottler Henke Inc. , (2002), Task Tutor tool kit. Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://stottlerhenke. com/solutions/training/ttt. htm Technology and learning portfolio. (1997, August). Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://unesco. org/education/eduprog/lwf/doc/portfolio/portindex. htm Waltz, D. (1996). Artificial Intelligence: Realizing the ultimate promises of computing. Retrieved August 19, 2010 from http://www. cs. washington. edu/homes/lazowsk/era/ai. html -------------------------------------------- [ 1 ]. Singularity: the point when machine intelligence outpaces that of humans   Artificial Intelligence: Present and Future uses Bill DeJaynes Intro to computers Dr. Kanooni August 30, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. …. 2 Artificial Intelligence: Present and future uses…………………………………........................ 2 Body……………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-10 Table 0……………………………………………………………………………………….... 2 Present day uses: Military……………………………………………………………………... 3 Present day uses: Medicine……………………………………………………………………. Table 1………………………………………………………………………………………. …5 Table 2…………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Present day uses: Education…………………………………………………………………. …7 Learning subject areas graphic………………………………………………………. …………8 Future uses: Games………………………………………………………………………….. …9 Future uses: Robots…………………………….. ………………………………………………9 Future uses: Integration……………………………………….. ………………………………10 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………... 11 References…………………………………………………………………………………….. 12-13
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