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Angle of Vision

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RESEARCH QUESTION: DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM STRAIGHT TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR IN HUMANS?

ABSTRACT:

The research question of my study is “Does the change in the angle of vision (from straight to peripheral) effect the time taken to detect motion and color in humans?”

25 students in the age group of 16-18 years were selected for the first experiment conducted for detecting color. This was performed with the help of an experiment online at the site www.humanbenchmark.com. A chart marked with different angles of vision (0, 30, 60 and 90) was placed behind the computer screen. The student sitting in front of the screen had to click the mouse when the screen turned green and the time recorded was displayed. Another experiment with the same group of students was done to detect motion. A similar chart as above was placed on the wall and the student was asked to catch a 30 cm ruler dropped by another student at different degree of angles. The distance obtained was converted into time using an appropriate graph. A two-tailed ‘t' test was conducted. The calculated ‘t' values were found to be higher than the table ‘t' value at 48 degree of freedom. So the positive hypothesis was accepted for both color and motion. Comparison of ‘t' values for color and motion at all degree of angles shows that positive hypothesis can be accepted. When the angle changes from 0 to 90 the time taken to detect color and motion increases. This means that change from straight to peripheral vision leads to increase in time taken for detection of both color and motion. The time taken for detecting color is more than the time taken to detect motion at all angles of vision. This means that humans are able to detect motion better than color at all angles of vision (from straight to peripheral).

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION:

1.1: RESEARCH QUESTION: DOES THE CHANGE IN THE ANGLE OF VISION (FROM STRAIGHT TO PERIPHERAL) EFFECT THE TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION AND COLOR IN HUMANS?

1.2: WHY I CHOSE THE TOPIC?

The human eye has always been a very intricate structure to understand and as a student of biology I have always wished to study the structure in detail. I have sought after finding out how such a small organ can be very vital for a human being and help them in their everyday life as it is estimated that 2/3rd[1] of the information registered in the brain is due to the eye and also to know whether seeing from the corner of the eye is possible and if it is so, to what degree is it possible.

1.3: BACKGROUND RESEARCH:

1.31: RETINA:

The retina being the innermost layer of the eye covers 4/5th of the rear of the eye and has the light-sensitive receptors which are rods and three types of cones: S (?) 400-500 nm, M (?) 450-630nm, L (?) 500-700nm

1.32: RODS AND CONES:

The image above[2] shows the structure of a rod and a cone. Rods and cones have specific pigments on their tips used for light absorption and image formation. The receptors also contain transmembrane proteins called opsin and also retinal[3] which is a prosthetic group and they are derivatives of vitamin A. Rods record images of the shades of grey and they respond only in dim light and therefore the rods work at night. Rods do not respond to color, which is why there is difficulty in viewing colors in the dark. Also they are highly sensitive to low intensity light[4] and have a pigment called rhodopsin (gene present on chromosome 3)[5] or visual purple, which renew mainly in the dark. Rods are used to get images from the peripheral vision, which is why the image received by the rods is not very sharp. Rods are not concentrated in only one part of the retina like the cones. Since rods are sensitive to dim light, faint objects are seen more clearly from a peripheral vision. Cones record color images and are abundant in the fovea centralis and work mainly in bright light[6] and therefore work during the day and cones have three types of pigment called cyanolabe, chlorolabe and erythrolabe[7] which absorb blue, green and red light respectively. These pigments are renewed at a greater speed than the pigments on the rods. Each eye has approximately 120 million rods and 6-7 million cones[8]. Both rods and cones have vitamin A along with their other pigments, which is why deficiency of vitamin A will result in blindness. The intensity of light affects the rods and cones to a great extent as they function only according to the light provided. It is due to the cones that we are able to see more than 200 colors[9]. The cones are mainly gathered around the macula lutea otherwise called macula, which helps in giving very precise and sharp images of scenes at which the eye is directly aimed especially in bright light, as cones do not function in dim light. The fovea is not supplied with blood vessels like the rest of the retina which helps the cones to form as sharper image as there is no disruption in the vision and perceiving of the image whereas the rest of the retina is richly supplied with blood vessels which is why the image is not very sharp and is slightly disrupted. Color blindness is one of the diseases that occur when the pigments present in the cones are in an abnormal state.

1.33: HOW DO WE DETECT COLOR:

The ventral stream[11] (purple) is important in color recognition. The dorsal stream[12] (green) is also shown. They originate from a common source in the visual cortex. Visual information is then sent back via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm: a point where the two optic nerves meet and information is sent to the other side of the brain. A given cell that might respond best to long wavelength light if the light is relatively bright might then become responsive to all wavelengths if the stimulus is relatively dim. Some scientists believe that a different, relatively small, population of neurons may be responsible for color vision. These specialized neurons have receptive fields that can calculate the cone ratios. A "physical color" is a combination of pure spectral colors[13] in the visible range. Since there are many distinctly visible spectral colors, the set of the physical colors can be imagined as an infinite-dimensional vector space. In general, there is no such thing as a combination of spectral colors that we perceive; instead there are infinitely many possibilities. An object that absorbs some of the light reaching it and reflects the rest is called a pigment. If some wavelengths in the range of visible light are absorbed more than others, the pigment appears to us to be colored. The color perceived by us is not simply a matter of wavelength; it depends on wavelength content and on the properties of our visual system. The light that falls on the retina for straight vision is observed by the rods and cones and is sent to the optic nerves as electrical impulses and it reaches the brain after which it is sent back and we perceive the image brought by the impulse. For peripheral vision, the cones mainly perceive the light that falls on the retina and the impulse is sent through the optic nerve. The processing of the pathway of light is the same the main difference being that in straight vision, both perceive the light whereas in peripheral vision, it is the rods that work more when compared to cones.

1.34: HOW DO WE DETECT MOVEMENT:

Rods are responsible for the detection of motion. These cells in the retina convert the light into electrical impulses. The optic nerve sends these impulses to the brain where an image is produced.[14] Therefore, motion is detected well with rods since it is primarily rod vision.

1.35: TYPES OF VISION:

a) PERIPHERAL VISION:

It is the side vision of a human that enable us to see movement. The main functions of peripheral vision are:[15] 1. Recognition of well-known structures and forms with no need to focus by the foveal line of sight. 2. Identification of similar forms and movements (Gestalt psychology laws) 3. Delivery of sensations that form the background of detailed visual perception.

b) STRAIGHT VISION:

This type of vision is experienced by the cones as it occurs when the object is right in front of the person at an angle of 0.

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY:

2.1: HYPOTHESIS: 1:

1. NULL HYPOTHESIS- The change in angle of vision from straight to peripheral has no effect on the time taken to detect color and motion in humans. 2. POSITIVE HYPOTHESIS-The change in angle of vision from straight to peripheral has an effect on the time taken to detect color and motion in humans.

2.2: EXPERIMENT:

To determine the time at which color and motion can be detected at different angles of vision.

2.3: VARIABLES:

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Angle of vision DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Time taken to detect color and motion CONTROLLED VARIABLE: Age group of students

2.4: MATERIALS:

1. A 30 cm ruler 2. Angle chart 3. Graph that converts cm to time

PROCEDURE FOR DETECTING MOTION FOR DIFFERENT ANGLES OF VISION: PART A:

1. 1. People selected for this experiment were all students from grade 12, age group 16-18 years. 25 such people with no defect in vision were selected for this experiment. 2. Make an angle chart. Hold the ruler in front of the person experimenting and ask the person to look straight with a 0° angle based on the diagram given above. 3. From the angle at which the person is standing, hold the rulers and then without telling the person, drop the ruler. 4. Mark the cm at which the person catches the ruler and calculate the time at which the person reacted by using a graph, refer to Appendix A, which converts cm to time. 5. Make the person sit and observe the chart at different angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° on either side. 6. Repeat the experiment for all angles and note the distance on the ruler.

PROCEDURE FOR DETECTING COLOR FOR DIFFERENT ANGLES OF VISION: PART B:

1. People selected for this experiment were all students from grade 12, age group 16-18 years. 25 such people with no defect in vision were selected for this experiment. 2. Make the person concentrate on the screen of the computer at one angle at a time. 3. Set up the experiment as shown in the diagram given above. 4. Set up the screen from the online site www.humanbenchmark.com[16] for the experiment. 4. Make one student sit and observe the screen at 0° angle for straight vision. 5. Explain the procedure to the person has to concentrate on the screen and click as soon as he/she sees the green colored box. 6. Record the time that appears on the screen.

2.5: ERRORS, SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS:

ERRORS SIGNIFICANCE IMPROVEMENTS 1. It is not very frequently seen that a computer makes a mistake but it is possible. In this case the readings will be different and it will affect the average. There is no improvement as such for this problem but repeating the experiment 5-6 times and taking the average can help overcome it. 2. Observing the correct distance in cm at which the person has held the ruler after dropping. To take the average, even the slightest mistake or wrong reading can alter the results. Measuring should be very accurate. Once the person has caught the ruler, it should be measured and the error should be noted.

2.6: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

MEAN: It is the average of the readings of each of the degrees in the data tables. FORMULA: STANDARD DEVIATION: It is a measure of the individual observations and their dispersed nature around the mean. FORMULA: Formula[17] T-VALUE: It is the remainder of the mean of set a and set b divided by the square root of the sum of the square of the standard deviation of set a by the number of readings in set a and the square of the standard deviation of set b by the number of readings in set b. FORMULA: Degree of Freedom = (n1 + n2) - 2[18] = (25+25)-2 = 48. Value of t from the table: A two-tailed ‘t' test is conducted to statistically analyze the readings. Take the value closest which is 45: [19] At 0.05= 2.01

CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION:

1. OBSERVATION FOR TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING COLOR:

SAMPLE: STUDENT 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/- 0.s ) 90° GREEN 433 60° GREEN 428 30° GREEN 367.8 0° GREEN 215.6 -30° GREEN 302.2 -60° GREEN 375 -90° GREEN 434.8 Similar observations were taken for 24 students. For the rest of the data refer to Appendix B.

2. OBSERVATION FOR TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING MOTION:

SAMPLE: STUDENT 1: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 25.4 225 60° 19 196 30° 18.2 192 0° 14.8 175 -30° 20.2 203 -60° 23.7 213 -90° 27 231 Similar observations were taken for 24 students. For the rest of the data refer to Appendix C.

CHAPTER 4: DATA PROCESSING: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1. CONSOLIDATED TABLE FOR MEAN OF TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING COLOR FOR DIFFERENT ANGLE OF VISION:

DEGREE OF ANGLE MEAN OF TIME TAKEN (s) STANDARD DEVIATION 90° 381.76 64.36 60° 343.944 59.70 30° 302.072 50.82 0° 260.512 43.72 -30° 313.024 51.68 -60° 349.664 49.07 -90° 392.928 60.90

4.2: GRAPH: Time taken to detect change of color with a change in the angle of vision from normal to peripheral vision:

4.3: TABLE FOR ‘T' VALUES:

COMPARISON OF ANGLE OF VISION

‘T' VALUE 0-30 3.03297366 0-60 5.63077084 0-90 7.79097281 30-60 2.37660374 30-90 4.42656957 60-90 2.03481172 0- -30 3.87845101 0- -60 6.7969464 0- -90 8.83125356 -30- -60 1.93449964 -30- -90 4.2830577 -60- -90 2.34660781

4.4: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ‘T' VALUES:

DEGREE ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION 0°-30° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. There is a difference between the times taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 30° so color is detected better at 0°. 0°-60° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 60° so color is detected better at 0°. 0°-90° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows the difference taken in the time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 90° so color is detected better at 0° 30°-60° Since the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, we can assume that there is no change in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles. In this case we would consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 60° so color is detected better at 30° 30°-90° The calculated t-value is smaller and therefore shows either no change in the time or negligible change in time to detect color between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 90° so color is detected better at 30° 60°-90° Again here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. Therefore, here we will again consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 90° so time taken at 60° is less than 90° 0°- -30° Here we see that the calculated t-value is higher than the table t-value and therefore there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 0° is less than at -30°. 0°- -60° Here, the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value, which shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -60° so color is detected better at 0° 0°- -90° There is no difference or negligible difference in the time taken to detect the color between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. Here we will consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so color is detected better at 0° -30°- -60° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the color between the two angles. Therefore we consider the null hypothesis. This shows there is not much difference between -60° and -30° -30°- -90° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so color is detected better at 30° -60°- -90° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect color between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so color is detected better at -60

4.5: CONSOLIDATED TABLE FOR MEAN OF TIME TAKEN TO DETECT MOTION:

DEGREE OF ANGLE

MEAN OF TIME TAKEN (s) STANDARD DEVIATION 90° 223.92 10.32 60° 208.2 12.56 30° 192.96 13.92 0° 171.2 12.81 -30° 188.64 11.09 -60° 208.84 12.30 -90° 225.08 9.38

4.6: GRAPH: Time taken to detect change of motion with a change in the angle of vision from normal to peripheral vision:

4.7: TABLE FOR ‘T' VALUES:

COMPARISON OF ANGLE OF VISION

‘T' VALUE 0 °- 30° 5.48291284 0° - 60° 10.3056471 0-90 16.0152192 30-60 4.83165336 30-90 10.0865407 60-90 4.83298204 0- -30 5.14435626 0- -60 10.9143467 0- -90 16.9596161 -30- -60 6.19657248 -30- -90 12.5436607 -60- -90 25.611204

4.8: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ‘T' VALUES:

DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0°-30° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. There is no difference between the times taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, we consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 30° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 0°-60° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. We would therefore consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 60° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 0°-90° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. This shows that there is a difference taken in the time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we would consider the positive hypothesis in this situation. Higher mean at 90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 30°-60° Since the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value, we can assume that there is some change in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles. In this case we would consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 60° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 30°-90° The calculated t-value is greater and therefore shows there is change in the time to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore in this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 60°-90° Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value. This shows that there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. Therefore, here we will consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at 90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 0°- -30° Here we see that the calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value and therefore there is no difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -30° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 0°- -60° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is no difference or there is negligible difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles. In this case we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -60° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. 0°- -90° There is difference in the time taken to detect the motion between the two angles, as the calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value. Here we will consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. -30°- -60° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows that there is either no change in time or negligible change in time to detect the motion between the two angles. Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -60° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. -30°- -90° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value which shows that there is change in time to detect the motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two. -60°- -90° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value therefore showing that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion between the two angles Therefore we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean at -90° so there is a difference in the time taken between the two.

4.9: ‘T' TABLE VALUE FOR COMPARISON OF TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING COLOR AND MOTION:

DEGREE T-VALUE 0°- 0° 9.8011396 30°- 30° 10.60658 60°- 60° 10.960664 90°- 90° 12.105927 -30°- -30° 11.765113 -60°- -60° 14.122822 -90°- -90° 13.61975

4.10: GRAPH:

Difference in time taken to detect change of color and motion with a change in the angle of vision from normal to peripheral vision: Untitled

4.11: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF ‘T' VALUES:

COMPARISON OF MOTION AND COLOR AT DIFFERENT ANGLES OF VISION:

DEGREE ANALYSIS EVALUATION 0°-0° The calculated t-value is greater than the table t-value that shows difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. 30°-30° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. 60°-60° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here again we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. 90°-90° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Therefore here we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. -30°- -30° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. -60°- -60° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. Here again we consider the positive hypothesis. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. -90°- -90° The calculated t-value is smaller than the table t-value that shows the negligible difference in time taken to observe the motion and color. This shows that there is not much difference between observing color and motion at these two angles. We take the positive hypothesis into consideration here. Higher mean for color, which shows that more time is taken to detect color than motion. 4.12: DISCUSSION: All the ‘t' values calculated are higher than the table value due to which we can accept the positive hypothesis. This means that the change in angle of vision from straight to peripheral vision effects the time taken to detect color and motion. As the angle of vision increases from 0 to 90, the time taken for detecting motion and color increases. This shows that the detection of motion and color is faster at straight vision than peripheral vision. Detection of color is faster in straight vision than peripheral vision as the cones are concentrated in the central region of retina called the Yellow spot. The light from the object needs to stimulate the cones in the yellow spot for us to see different colors. If the light from the object falls anywhere else on the retina, due to the absence of cones, color detection is not possible. This matches with the result of the experiment that time taken for detection of color in straight vision is less than any other angle of vision. According to the findings of Benjamin Thompson, Bruce C. Hansen, Robert F. Hess and Nikolaus F. Troje of McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada received on February 13, 2007 and published on July 25, 2007, peripheral vision is at least highly accurate in perceiving biological motion.[20] Detection of motion is faster in straight vision than peripheral vision but detection of motion is faster than detection of color in peripheral vision. Receptor cells on the retina are denser at the center and least dense at the edges. Rod cells that cannot detect color are concentrated near the periphery. Peripheral vision is better in the dark as cone cells are not active in little light or color. It is also superb at detecting motion. Peripheral vision detects more motion and less detail because it's more important to detect motion than detail.[21] Rod cells (peripheral vision) are better at sensing objects in dim light than cone cells but are not sensitive to color. Rod cells are very sensitive to motion, and are responsible for the ability to detect things moving toward you before focusing on them.[22] CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION: Analysis of ‘t' values shows that there is a difference in the time taken to detect motion and color at different angles of vision. When the angle changes from 0 to 90 the time taken to detect color and motion increases. This means that change from normal to peripheral vision leads to increase in time taken for detection of both color and motion. Comparison of ‘t' values obtained for color and motion shows that the time taken for detecting color and motion shows that the time taken to detect color is more than the time taken to detect motion at all angles of vision. This means that humans are able to detect motion better than color at all angles of vision (from normal to peripheral).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

http://www.aoa.org/x6024.xml http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/V/Vision.html#Cone_Vision Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 467. http://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/montag/vandplite/pages/chap_9/ch9p1.html Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 468. http://academia.hixie.ch/bath/eye/home.html http://www.healthyeyes.org.uk/index.php?id=74 http://www.lasereye.com/how-eye-works http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventral_stream http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsal_stream http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_colours http://www.aoa.org/x6024.xml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral_vision www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php MICROSOFT EXCEL, 2007. http://stattrek.com/Lesson1/Formulas.aspx?Tutorial=Stat Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 7 http://www.eye-therapy.com/Peripheral-Vision/ http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=24988.0;prev_next=next http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/HumBio_p016.shtml http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/peripheral_vision/index.html Peripheral vision Good for biological motion, bad for signal noise segregation , by Thompson, Hansen, Hess, & Troje.htm

APPENDIX A: GRAPH TO CONVERT DISTANCE TO TIME:

APPENDIX B: OBSERVATION FOR TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING COLOR:

SAMPLE: STUDENT 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/- 0.5) 90° GREEN 448.4 60° GREEN 403.8 30° GREEN 367.2 0° GREEN 202.2 -30° GREEN 397 -60° GREEN 402 -90° GREEN 445 SAMPLE: STUDENT 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 450.8 60° GREEN 300.4 30° GREEN 262.4 0° GREEN 207.8 -30° GREEN 260.8 -60° GREEN 305 -90° GREEN 443.4

SAMPLE: STUDENT 4:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 425.8 60° GREEN 405 30° GREEN 389.4 0° GREEN 283 -30° GREEN 369.8 -60° GREEN 409.8 -90° GREEN 430.4

SAMPLE: STUDENT 5:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 428.2 60° GREEN 412.4 30° GREEN 262.8 0° GREEN 243.8 -30° GREEN 250.2 -60° GREEN 281.2 -90° GREEN 325.2

SAMPLE: STUDENT 6:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 309.4 60° GREEN 268.8 30° GREEN 262.4 0° GREEN 234.4 -30° GREEN 290.6 -60° GREEN 359.2 -90° GREEN 394

SAMPLE: STUDENT 7:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 365.6 60° GREEN 297 30° GREEN 294 0° GREEN 209.4 -30° GREEN 253.4 -60° GREEN 275 -90° GREEN 296.6

SAMPLE: STUDENT 8:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 368.6 60° GREEN 358.4 30° GREEN 284.6 0° GREEN 235.4 -30° GREEN 297.6 -60° GREEN 353 -90° GREEN 365.6

SAMPLE: STUDENT 9:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 380.4 60° GREEN 367.6 30° GREEN 289.2 0° GREEN 288.6 -30° GREEN 390.2 -60° GREEN 361.4 -90° GREEN 384.4

SAMPLE: STUDENT 10:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 420.4 60° GREEN 369.6 30° GREEN 299 0° GREEN 268.2 -30° GREEN 308.4 -60° GREEN 368.6 -90° GREEN 393.4

SAMPLE: STUDENT 11:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 347.4 60° GREEN 317.4 30° GREEN 237.8 0° GREEN 237.2 -30° GREEN 306.8 -60° GREEN 409.2 -90° GREEN 349.2

SAMPLE: STUDENT 12:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 364.6 60° GREEN 327.8 30° GREEN 318.4 0° GREEN 286 -30° GREEN 355.6 -60° GREEN 369.2 -90° GREEN 429.8

SAMPLE: STUDENT 13:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 333.6 60° GREEN 268.6 30° GREEN 253.2 0° GREEN 237.2 -30° GREEN 390.4 -60° GREEN 450.2 -90° GREEN 565

SAMPLE: STUDENT 14:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 344 60° GREEN 272 30° GREEN 215.6 0° GREEN 215.2 -30° GREEN 232 -60° GREEN 311 -90° GREEN 398

SAMPLE: STUDENT 15:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 321.4 60° GREEN 302.4 30° GREEN 277.6 0° GREEN 249.6 -30° GREEN 280.6 -60° GREEN 296.6 -90° GREEN 455.8

SAMPLE: STUDENT 16:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 305.6 60° GREEN 271.8 30° GREEN 252.6 0° GREEN 236.6 -30° GREEN 252.6 -60° GREEN 340 -90° GREEN 355.8

SAMPLE: STUDEsNT 17:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 309 60° GREEN 301.8 30° GREEN 299.6 0° GREEN 296.6 -30° GREEN 300.6 -60° GREEN 306.2 -90° GREEN 347.2

SAMPLE: STUDENT 18:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 355 60° GREEN 347 30° GREEN 318.2 0° GREEN 297.6 -30° GREEN 306.4 -60° GREEN 323.6 -90° GREEN 366

SAMPLE: STUDENT 19:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 571.6 60° GREEN 470.4 30° GREEN 321.8 0° GREEN 292.6 -30° GREEN 345.4 -60° GREEN 351.2 -90° GREEN 428.2

SAMPLE: STUDENT 20:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 339.8 60° GREEN 318.6 30° GREEN 306.8 0° GREEN 286 -30° GREEN 322.2 -60° GREEN 339.8 -90° GREEN 347.4

SAMPLE: STUDENT 21:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 360.4 60° GREEN 351.4 30° GREEN 339 0° GREEN 301.2 -30° GREEN 327 -60° GREEN 356.8 -90° GREEN 362

SAMPLE: STUDENT 22:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 472 60° GREEN 418.8 30° GREEN 392 0° GREEN 353.6 -30° GREEN 379.6 -60° GREEN 402 -90° GREEN 451

SAMPLE: STUDENT 23:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 367 60° GREEN 351 30° GREEN 339.8 0° GREEN 316 -30° GREEN 333 -60° GREEN 375.6 -90° GREEN 391.8

SAMPLE: STUDENT 24:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 425 60° GREEN 412.6 30° GREEN 376.8 0° GREEN 329.8 -30° GREEN 357 -60° GREEN 385.4 -90° GREEN 401.2

SAMPLE: STUDENT 25:

DEGREE OF ANGLE COLOR TIME TAKEN TO CLICK (s) (+/-0.5) 90° GREEN 297 60° GREEN 256 30° GREEN 223.8 0° GREEN 189.2 -30° GREEN 216.2 -60° GREEN 239.6 -90° GREEN 262

APPENDIX C: OBSERVATION FOR TIME TAKEN FOR DETECTING MOTION:

SAMPLE: STUDENT 2: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 25.8 227 60° 24.1 220 30° 20.2 203 0° 18.1 192 -30° 19.9 201 -60° 22.7 216 -90° 25.5 225 SAMPLE: STUDENT 3: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME 90° 29.6 240 60° 27 231 30° 22 210 0° 14.3 169 -30° 19.8 199 -60° 25.4 225 -90° 28.9 239 SAMPLE: STUDENT 4: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 27.6 238 60° 25 212 30° 18.4 193 0° 15.2 179 -30° 17.9 190 -60° 23.9 218 -90° 27 231 SAMPLE: STUDENT 5: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 27.6 238 60° 22.9 218 30° 17.4 183 0° 13.7 169 -30° 18.2 192 -60° 21 208 -90° 28.2 237 SAMPLE: STUDENT 6: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 29.1 239 60° 27.6 231 30° 22.9 218 0° 14.3 169 -30° 20.8 209 -60° 25.3 223 -90° 28.5 239 SAMPLE: STUDENT 7: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 23.3 217 60° 19.8 199 30° 16 181 0° 12.9 165 -30° 17.2 189 -60° 20.4 206 -90° 24.6 221 SAMPLE: STUDENT 8: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 27.3 229 60° 24.9 225 30° 18.7 196 0° 16.4 181 -30° 17.3 187 -60° 23.7 213 -90° 28.1 237 SAMPLE: STUDENT 9: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 25.5 225 60° 22.8 216 30° 18.9 200 0° 15.2 179 -30° 17.4 183 -60° 22 209 -90° 24.7 220 SAMPLE: STUDENT 10: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 27.5 231 60° 22.6 215 30° 19.3 198 0° 13.2 168 -30° 17.4 183 -60° 22.8 216 -90° 26.1 228 SAMPLE: STUDENT 11: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 25.6 226 60° 19.8 199 30° 14.9 176 0° 10.3 150 -30° 15.1 178 -60° 18.2 192 -90° 25.8 227 SAMPLE: STUDENT 12: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 27.8 235 60° 20.1 201 30° 14.2 171 0° 12.9 165 -30° 14.5 168 -60° 18.7 196 -90° 26.3 229 SAMPLE: STUDENT 13: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 26.5 226 60° 23.6 217 30° 20.5 205 0° 18.2 192 -30° 20.2 203 -60° 25.1 222 -90° 26.9 231 SAMPLE: STUDENT 14: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 25.6 226 60° 20.1 201 30° 17.8 189 0° 13.6 165 -30° 18.2 192 -60° 19.9 201 -90° 25.1 222 SAMPLE: STUDENT 15: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 23.6 217 60° 19.1 198 30° 16.2 182 0° 15.9 179 -30° 16.4 181 -60° 20 204 -90° 24.5 220 SAMPLE: STUDENT 16: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 21.3 209 60° 20.1 201 30° 16.6 184 0° 12.5 160 -30° 16.9 182 -60° 21.2 207 -90° 24.4 219 SAMPLE: STUDENT 17: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 23.1 216 60° 19.7 199 30° 14.3 169 0° 9.8 142 -30° 14.6 170 -60° 18.4 193 -90° 22.9 218 SAMPLE: STUDENT 18: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 26.4 225 60° 17.6 187 30° 14.8 175 0° 10.7 153 -30° 14.5 168 -60° 17.3 187 -90° 24.9 225 SAMPLE: STUDENT 19: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 26.2 223 60° 23.5 217 30° 19.7 199 0° 17.3 187 -30° 18.4 193 -60° 23.8 216 -90° 27.9 235 SAMPLE: STUDENT 20: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 20.3 203 60° 17.8 189 30° 16.4 180 0° 13.6 165 -30° 16.9 182 -60° 18.5 195 -90° 21.7 204 SAMPLE: STUDENT 21: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 23.9 218 60° 20.4 206 30° 18.2 192 0° 17.6 187 -30° 19.5 199 -60° 21.3 209 -90° 25.1 222 SAMPLE: STUDENT 22: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 21.7 204 60° 18.1 192 30° 16.5 183 0° 12.4 158 -30° 16.8 181 -60° 17.2 189 -90° 20.9 205 SAMPLE: STUDENT 23: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 26.5 226 60° 22.7 216 30° 17.8 188 0° 14.6 170 -30° 17.9 190 -60° 23.4 215 -90° 27.3 229 SAMPLE: STUDENT 24: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 22.4 210 60° 20.1 201 30° 18.9 200 0° 17.2 181 -30° 19.3 198 -60° 21.5 208 -90° 23.7 213 SAMPLE: STUDENT 25: DEGREE OF ANGLE MOTION (cm) TIME (s) (+/-0.5) 90° 24.9 225 60° 24.2 218 30° 19.6 207 0° 16.3 180 -30° 18.5 195 -60° 23.8 216 -90° 24.7 220

Notes:

[2] http://www.aoa.org/x6024.xml [3] http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/V/Vision.html#Cone_Vision [4] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 467. [5] http://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/montag/vandplite/pages/chap_9/ch9p1.html [6] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 468. [7] http://academia.hixie.ch/bath/eye/home.html [8] http://www.healthyeyes.org.uk/index.php?id=74 [9] http://www.lasereye.com/how-eye-works [10] http://www.colourtherapyhealing.com/colour/images/rods_cones.gif [11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventral_stream [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsal_stream [13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_colours [14] http://www.aoa.org/x6024.xml [15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral_vision [16] www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php [17] MICROSOFT EXCEL, 2007. [18] http://stattrek.com/Lesson1/Formulas.aspx?Tutorial=Stat [19] Heinemann Baccalaureate. Higher Level Biology. Heinemann International. U.K. Scotprint: 2007. p 7 [20] Peripheral vision Good for biological motion, bad for signal noise segregation , by Thompson, Hansen, Hess, & Troje.htm [21] http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=24988.0;prev_next=next [22] http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/HumBio_p016.shtml
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