Analog electrical voltage or current

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INTRODUCTION

ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS

The signal is initially generated is in the form of an analog electrical voltage or current, produced for example by a microphone or some other type of transducer. The output from the readout system of a CD (compact disc) player, the data is already in digital form. An analog signal must be converted into digital form before DSP techniques can be applied.

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An analog electrical voltage signal, for example, can be digitized using an electronic circuit called an analog-to-digital converter or ADC. This generates a digital output as a stream of binary numbers whose values represent the electrical voltage input to the device at each sampling instant.

Digital signal processing (DSP)-digital representation of signals and the use of digital processors to analyze, modify, or extract information from signals. Many signals in DSP are derived from analogue signals which have been sampled at regular intervals and converted into digital form. The key advantages of DSP over analogue processing are

  • Guaranteed accuracy (determined by the number of bits used)
  • Perfect reproducibility
  • No drift in performance due to temperature or age
  • Takes advantage of advances in semiconductor technology
  • Greater flexibility (can be reprogrammed without modifying hardware)
  • Superior performance (linear phase response possible, and filtering
  • algorithms can be made adaptive)
  • Sometimes information may already be in digital form.
  • There are however (still) some disadvantages
  • Speed and cost (DSP design and hardware may be expensive, especially with high bandwidth signals)
  • Finite word length problems (limited number of bits may cause degradation).

Application areas of DSP are considerable:

  1. Image processing (pattern recognition, robotic vision, image enhancement, facsimile, satellite weather map, animation)
  2. Instrumentation and control (spectrum analysis, position and rate control, noise reduction, data compression)
  3. Speech and audio (speech recognition, speech synthesis, text to speech, digital audio, equalisation)
  4. Military (secure communication, radar processing, sonar processing, missile guidance)
  5. Telecommunications (echo cancellation, adaptive equalisation, spread spectrum, video conferencing, data communication)
  6. Biomedical (patient monitoring, scanners, EEG brain mappers, ECG analysis, X-ray storage and enhancement).

INTRODUCTION TO CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a radically new concept in wireless communications. It has gained widespread international acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade that will dramatically increase both their system capacity and the service quality. It has likewise been chosen for deployment by the majority of the winners of the United States Personal Communications System spectrum auctions. It may seem, however, mysterious for those who aren’t familiar with it.

CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum, a family of digital communication techniques that have been used in military applications for many years.

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