RESEARCH PROPOSAL A) Research Topic
The research topic will focus on the area of constitutional law, in particular, the efficacy of applying the fundamental rule of law in combating the upsurge risks of global terrorism. Hence, the proposed research title will be: â€˜The war on terror and its impact on the rule of law: - a juristic analysis
.' B) Background of research
Lately, we often hear many cases of terrorist attacks that has opened the door to a myriad of questions about what has gone wrong with our society today. Has the society begun to abhor the principle of the rule of law? Has our rule of law being sidestepped? We heard and read of so many condemnations and justifications when the case of â€˜Sydney Cafe Siege
â€˜ occurred last December 2014 and just as we were about to forget the tragic episode, the recent merciless attack at â€˜Charlie Hebdo
â€™ in Paris surfaced within a gap of less than a month from the former that sent shock waves to the whole world. The most recent case being the â€˜Garissa University College
â€™ massacre in Kenya that killed nearly 150 people. It has now become an incessant universal problem and in no time we will definitely hear another similar tragedy soon in some part of the world. Regrettably, to date we hear absolutely nothing about any solid solutions to prevent another future recurrence of such terrorist acts in another part of the world. Most world leaders took the stand that we had to stay vigilant at all time. Is that all we can do? Even our own Defence Minister had cautioned us, as reported in the press that such acts of terrorism could happen on our very own soil in Malaysia. The seriousness of our government in combating terrorism can be seen with the urgent tabling and passing of the proposed new law known as the Prevention of Terrorism Act (â€˜POTAâ€™) by the Home Minister in the recent Parliamentary sitting after more than 10 hours of debate. Some opposing legislators argued during the debate session that the POTA is controversial and unnecessary as the existing laws for e.g. SOSMA is adequate to tackle the imminent threat of terrorism, therefore POTA can be subjected to abuse if allowed. But whether it is controversial or is it just another piece of draconian laws has yet to be seen. However, a close scrutiny is required to evaluate it, and this will be delved as part of my research interest here. Now, when speaking about terrorism, the mind-boggling questions are: What and where is the cause of the problem? And how can we educate the peoples from shunning such radical ideology adhered by the terrorists? It was against the backdrop of this ever present polemic by neo-fascist groups that motivate this research topic. The paper will look at the impact terrorism will bring that will seriously affect the application of the rule of law of the nations â€“ an established principle of law that we have been adopted over the years. The case of Charlie Hebdo
not only made us cogitate, but open our eyes to whether the shooting was indeed a gross attack on freedom of speech/expression/fundamental human rights or was it motivated solely by religious fanaticism as some argued. For the human rights group, they will argue that the critical issue here involves debunking the idea of â€˜freedom of speechâ€™. It's certainly not right for the Cherif and Said Kouachi to defend their conduct by insinuating or claiming that the Publisher of the magazine had insulted their religion and similarly, the weekly cannot justify their acute act of provocation under the disguise of freedom of expression. Now the issue to be dealt with here is, does the freedom of speech mean we have a broad permission to insult and hurt others without any limitations? Thus, it is admittedly that the relationship between freedom of expression, opinion, speech and the rule of law is a corollary one: one supports the other. For the rule of law to be operative, we certainly need to respect the freedom of speech, in order for people to observe and critique the making and application of the laws, not to mention their interpretation and its implementation in the court system. Equally, the rule of law can be an ambiguous expression. It may mean different things for different scholars or jurists. Nonetheless, one thing, that most of us would agree, is that the rule can be simply explained with the following phrase: "no one is above the law
â€ - which means the idea that truth, and therefore the law, is based upon fundamental principles which can be discovered, or created by an act of will. Therefore, the principle behind is neither the government nor its public official is above the law or is permitted to act arbitrarily or unilaterally outside the law. The law is intended to preserve against arbitrary governance, whether by an authoritarian leader or mob rule. On the other hand, the term terrorism is not definitive and is a highly contentious to define. There is, to date, no globally accepted, unambiguous definition or description of terrorism. From the start of human civilization, the act of terrorism has already emerged, and there are a variety of causes that influence the belief of terrorism. Many historians hold the view that the act of terrorism is in essence connected to the political hidden agenda. This is evident from the ongoing brutal killings happening in the Middle East lately that testifies to the political nature of terrorism before the emergence of â€˜Islamic State in Iraq and Syriaâ€™ (ISIL) group. So, the act of terror can be widely construed as the unauthorized method to implement the principles at will, thus compelling the affected to agree to that principle despite their incompatibility. One thing for sure is that the propaganda of aggression and instilling of fear is the primary goal of terrorism. This is proven by the conduct of the ISIL terrorists in the middle east lately that involves themselves in inhumanly violent activities conspicuously. Another classification of terrorist can be seen in terms of making known their ideology through the political platform. And some were due to their excessive involvement in repressive conditions. They seek for alternative ways to convey a change in their lives (Raphaeli, 2003). For e.g. the majority of such groups can be found in the regions of Bosnia and Georgia. Their clash exists in terms of ethnic factors, after the fall of the Soviet Union. What is more alarming from the 1990s onwards, is ÃÂ° new form of Ã‘-ntÃÂµrnÃÂ°tÃ‘-onÃÂ°l tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm display thÃÂ°t sÃÂµÃÂµms lÃÂµss rÃÂ°tÃ‘-onÃÂ°l, lÃÂµss focusÃÂµd, morÃÂµ Ã‘-ntÃÂµrnÃÂ°tÃ‘-onÃÂ°l ÃÂ°nd morÃÂµ dÃÂµÃÂ°dly - IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-st tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm (CrÃÂµnshÃÂ°w, 1981). In fÃÂ°ct, mÃÂ°ny of thÃÂµ cÃÂ°usÃÂµs ÃÂ°nd motÃ‘-vÃÂ°tÃ‘-ons ÃÂ°rÃÂµ stÃ‘-ll vÃÂµry sÃ‘-mÃ‘-lÃÂ°r to whÃÂ°t wÃÂµ mÃ‘-ght cÃÂ°ll trÃÂ°dÃ‘-tÃ‘-onÃÂ°l modÃÂµrn tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm. WhÃÂ°t Ã‘-s dÃ‘-ffÃÂµrÃÂµnt Ã‘-s thÃÂµ Ã‘-dÃÂµologÃ‘-cÃÂ°l bÃÂ°sÃ‘-s of rÃÂµlÃ‘-gÃ‘-on, thÃÂµ broÃÂ°d dÃÂµfÃ‘-nÃ‘-tÃ‘-on of thÃÂµ ÃÂµnÃÂµmy, thÃÂµ ÃÂµvolutÃ‘-on of tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-st tÃÂ°ctÃ‘-cs ÃÂ°nd thÃÂµ dÃÂµsÃ‘-rÃÂµ ÃÂ°nd thÃÂµ potÃÂµntÃ‘-ÃÂ°l dÃÂµvÃÂ°stÃÂ°tÃ‘-ng lÃÂµvÃÂµls of dÃÂµstructÃ‘-on. A renowned example is the radical group calling themselves ISIS as highlighted earlier. These IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-st ÃÂµxtrÃÂµmÃ‘-sts sÃÂµÃÂµm wÃ‘-llÃ‘-ng to Ã‘-gnorÃÂµ thÃÂµ tÃÂ°boos ÃÂ°gÃÂ°Ã‘-nst kÃ‘-llÃ‘-ng Ã‘-nnocÃÂµnt pÃÂµoplÃÂµ ÃÂ°nd ÃÂ°blÃÂµ to rÃÂ°tÃ‘-onÃÂ°lÃ‘-zÃÂµ thÃÂµÃ‘-r ÃÂ°ctÃ‘-ons by dÃ‘-stortÃ‘-ng IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-c tÃÂµÃÂ°chÃ‘-ngs. LÃ‘-kÃÂµ thÃÂµ rÃÂµvolutÃ‘-onÃÂ°ry sÃÂµculÃÂ°r; ISIS is tryÃ‘-ng to ÃÂµstÃÂ°blÃ‘-sh ÃÂ°n Ã‘-dÃÂµologÃ‘-cÃÂ°l foundÃÂ°tÃ‘-on for thÃÂµÃ‘-r strugglÃÂµs to establish an Islamic Caliphates. To thÃ‘-s ÃÂµnd, they are prepared to dÃ‘-stort thÃÂµ tÃÂµÃÂ°chÃ‘-ngs of IslÃÂ°m to dÃÂµfÃ‘-nÃÂµ ÃÂ° common ÃÂµnÃÂµmy. ThÃÂ°t ÃÂµnÃÂµmy Ã‘-s dÃÂµscrÃ‘-bÃÂµd ÃÂ°s thÃÂµ WÃÂµstÃÂµrn culturÃÂµ of dÃÂµmocrÃÂ°cy (dÃ‘-smÃ‘-ssÃÂµd ÃÂ°s ÃÂ°ntÃ‘--IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-c by thÃÂµ Ã‘-dÃÂµologuÃÂµs of IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-c tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm), cÃÂ°pÃ‘-tÃÂ°lÃ‘-sm (ÃÂ°s rÃÂµportÃÂµd by Ã‘-mpÃÂµrÃ‘-ÃÂ°lÃ‘-st ÃÂµxploÃ‘-tÃÂ°tÃ‘-on), ÃÂ°nd Ã‘-ndÃ‘-vÃ‘-duÃÂ°lÃ‘-sm (thÃÂµ opposÃ‘-tÃ‘-on of IslÃÂ°mÃ‘-sts who bÃÂµlÃ‘-ÃÂµvÃÂµ Ã‘-n ÃÂ° nÃÂµw cÃÂ°lÃ‘-phÃÂ°tÃÂµ to lÃÂµÃÂ°d thÃÂµ communÃ‘-ty of MuslÃ‘-ms ÃÂ°round thÃÂµ world. This research paper will also briefly examine the Islamic texts from the Holy Quran/Sunnah that are being relied upon by the ISIS extremists to advance their goals and whether, they are deviating from the Islamic Fiqh. The findings will disclose the cause that motivates religious terrorism. To date, states hÃÂ°vÃÂµ hÃÂ°d rÃÂµlÃÂ°tÃ‘-vÃÂµly showing poor rÃÂµsults in contÃÂ°Ã‘-nÃ‘-ng or ÃÂµlÃ‘-mÃ‘-nÃÂ°tÃ‘-on of vÃ‘-olÃÂµncÃÂµ perpetrated by the terrorists/extremists. ThosÃÂµ who hÃÂ°vÃÂµ succÃÂµÃÂµdÃÂµd hÃÂ°vÃÂµ usÃÂµd ÃÂµxtrÃÂµmÃÂµ mÃÂµÃÂ°surÃÂµs of rÃÂµprÃÂµssÃ‘-on thÃÂ°t hÃÂ°vÃÂµ thrÃÂµÃÂ°tÃÂµnÃÂµd thÃÂµ rulÃÂµ of lÃÂ°w, pÃÂµrsonÃÂ°l frÃÂµÃÂµdoms ÃÂ°nd humÃÂ°n rÃ‘-ghts. ThÃÂµrÃÂµ must bÃÂµ ÃÂ° better response (CrÃÂµnshÃÂ°w, 1981). It has been argued that the ineptitude of the government in handling counter-terrorism response, thereby jeopardizing the basic ideas such as that of the rule of law. As human rights advocates have recognized, it is vital for governments to protect their citizens from terrorism, which endangers personal liberty. At the same time, democratic nations committed to the rule of law must resist the pressures to neglect the fundamental rights as enshrined in their respective constitution in the name of fighting terrorism. It sÃÂµÃÂµms thÃÂ°t thÃÂµ solutÃ‘-ons to tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm cÃÂ°n bÃÂµ found ÃÂ°t ÃÂ°ny stÃÂ°gÃÂµ of ÃÂµvolutÃ‘-on or dÃÂµtÃÂµrÃ‘-orÃÂ°tÃ‘-on of thÃÂµ polÃ‘-tÃ‘-cÃÂ°l procÃÂµss.ThÃ‘-s suggests thÃÂ°t we must fÃ‘-rst undÃÂµrstÃÂ°nd thÃÂµ hÃ‘-storÃ‘-cÃÂ°l contÃÂµxt of currÃÂµnt conflicts (YÃÂ°hyÃÂ°, 2002). So what is the rule of law? How does it operate? In a nutshell, the concept of the rule of law can be traced to its historical beginning as a means of protection from the tyrannical 'Rule of man' and the abuse of power by the State. Philosopher Friedrich von Hayek once defined the concept as 'Stripped of all its technicalities
'; which means that the government of the day in whatsoever actions it takes is bound by the rules fixed and announced in advance to the peoples. And such rules which are made to enable us to foresee with a fair degree of certainty how the authority will apply its coercive powers in any given situation, and to plan one's own individual affairs base on that prior knowledge we have gained. C) Research Objective
- To understand the root cause that motivates terrorism;
- To conceptualize the meaning of the 'Rule of Law' with the changing society in light of the global trends in counter-terrorism activities;
- To discern the rule of lawâ€™s evolution with the continued demands for internal security to fight terrorism.
- To focus on the impact on the application of the rule of law in the modern context in combating terrorism;
- To bring forth the possible solution, implementation and comprehensive understanding vis- a-vis the war against terror.
The proposed research methodology in this study will be based mainly on 'Doctrinal method' of research by various scholars familiar with that field. This doctrinal work selected is both analytical and descriptive. The data will be compiled and gathered from different sources and analysed to explore the desired objective. Analysis reports of research committees, conferences, and commissions will be taken as reference. The majority of information will be amassed from secondary sources, i.e. selected books, articles, journals, the internet and a few related case laws will be examined to achieve the objectives of this research paper. Opinions of other research scholars, academicians, jurists and other experts will be added to provide the necessary support for this study. E)Work Schedule
The time frame required for this research until its completion is estimated between 2-3 years of study. F)Bibliography:
- CrÃÂµnshÃÂ°w, MÃÂ°rthÃÂ°, (1981), 'ThÃÂµ cÃÂ°usÃÂµs of tÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm'. CompÃÂ°rÃÂ°tÃ‘-vÃÂµ polÃ‘-tÃ‘-cs, 13(4): 379-399;
- Fiss O, (2006) â€˜The War Against Terrorism and the Rule of Lawâ€™ Oxford Journal of Legal Studies.
- Friedrich von Hayek (1994).â€˜The Road to Serfdom,â€™ Chicago: University of Chicago Press;
- Neal Katyal, (2007), â€˜Equality in the War on Terrorâ€™ Stanford Law Review, Vol. 59, No. 5, Symposium: (Global Constitutionalism), pp. 1365-1394
- O'Connell, Mary Ellen(2004) â€˜ The Legal Case against the Global War on Terror â€™ 36 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 349;
- Raphaeli, N. (2003) "Financing of Terrorism: Sources, Methods and Channels", Terrorism and Political Violence;
- Wimmer, K. (2006). â€˜Toward a world rule of law: Freedom of expressionâ€™ The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,603(1), 202-216.
- YÃÂ°hyÃÂ°, HÃÂ°run, (2002), 'ThÃÂµ RÃÂµÃÂ°l IdÃÂµologÃ‘-cÃÂ°l Root of TÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm: DÃÂ°rwÃ‘-nÃ‘-sm ÃÂ°nd mÃÂ°tÃÂµrÃ‘-ÃÂ°lÃ‘-sm'. IslÃÂ°m DÃÂµnouncÃÂµs TÃÂµrrorÃ‘-sm, onlÃ‘-nÃÂµ ÃÂµdÃ‘-tÃ‘-on;