A form of communication

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Advertising as a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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It has different connotation related to the different people related to the field of advertising. To the CEO of a corporation, advertising is an essential marketing tool that helps create brand awareness, loyalty and stimulates demand. To an art director in an advertising agency it is a creative expression of an advertising concept. Advertising related issues most often are left to the discretion on the viewer. Some might perceive these issues as ethical while others may loathe the advertisements on liquor and alcohol. Although the Indian government has taken a moral stand of banning the advertisements of these substances, but the manufacturers of these products have resorted to something called as surrogate advertising.

Surrogate Advertising is done when the original product is not allowed to advertise itself on mass media. In India, alcohol brands are not allowed to give advertisements on television, so alcohol marketing firms use surrogate products like mineral water, soda, juice to hit consumers with the brand name. The brand name of the alcohol product is the same as the surrogate product. Kingfisher advertising packaged water, liquor manufacturers like Bacardi advertising compiled music CD’s and Jagjit Industries advertising Aristocrat Premium apple juice are some of the prime examples of surrogate advertising in India. When people view these advertisements they associate themselves with these products. The extent to which Kingfisher is successful in this strategy is the topic which is being studied in this paper.

Objectives/Research Questions:

Our main objective is “to evaluate the impact of surrogate advertising by Kingfisher by measuring its imact on the relationships between Brand Awareness, Brand Attitude and Brand Image amongst consumers”.

Literature Review & Hypothesis:

The review of literature shows that a number of studies have been conducted, especially in developed countries, on the ethical dimensions of surrogate advertising, (Zanot and Pincus, 1983; Hunt and Vitel, 1986). Few studies have been carried out to measure the effectiveness of surrogate advertising by products such as liquor and tobacco. But these studies were conducted in countries where the advertising of such products is not banned. Surrogate advertising is a fairly recent phenomenon emerging in countries where direct advertising of such products is banned completely.

We begin by examining the impact of surrogate advertising of alcohol brands (Parulekar, 2005) on their brand equity (as defined by Keller 1993). The Government of India banned advertising of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes vide Rule 7(2) of the Cable Television Networks Rules 1999.

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