A boycott is a coordinated effort to avoid purchasing goods and services from a particular company or person. Boycotts are designed to apply pressure on companies, forcing them to reform their ways in a way which satisfies the people involved in the boycott. The term “boycott” references an actual person, Captain Charles Boycott, an Englishman who was responsible for managing land in Ireland in the 1800s. When his tenants pressured him to lower their rents, he refused to do so, and evicted them. In response, the tenants organized, denying him goods and services. His crops rotted in the fields because he had no farm workers, he was unable to get deliveries of food and supplies, and he found himself neatly cut off from the community. By 1880, the “Boycott Treatment” was being used in other places, and the word quickly spread to other languages and regions of the world as well. (Morton S.1997.) According to business dictionary, Industrial action during which an employer withholds work, and denies employees access to the place of work. In effect, it is a strike by the management to compel a settlement to a labour dispute on terms favourable to the employer. When lock out action is taken by several employers in concert, it is called a joint lockout. Also called shut out. (https://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/lockout.html) In 1913 world’s biggest lockout occurs known as dublin1913. When Larkin was in power he wants to break the anti-union stance of the Dublin United Tramway Company (DUTC). It was owned by William Martin Murphy – a conservative nationalist and ex-MP, who was also proprietor of the city’s biggest newspaper, largest department store and hotel, and had founded the Dublin Employers’ Federation in 1912.Murphy demanded that all DUTC employees forswear membership of the ITGWU or be dismissed. Larkin struck back by calling the tramway-employees in his union out on 26 August 1913. The company responded by locking them out, at which point Larkin orchestrated a wave of ‘sympathetic strikes’, affecting other parts of Murphy’s empire as well as those businesses supporting him. After discussion, the employer’s federation then agreed to support the DUTC by locking out all employees who belonged to Larkin’s union and attempting to replace them with strike-breakers. By September, the dispute involved 20,000 employees across the city along with their 80,000 dependants. January 1914, it was evident that the workers had lost the dispute. Mostly unskilled and lacking the resources for a prolonged campaign, they had begun to drift back to work on the employers’ terms. (War and Conflict 1916 Easter Rising, report on BBC history)
COMMON CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT
The wage and salaries is often the major cause of disputes between an employee and employer. It also refers to a demand by employees for an increase in their wage rate or changes to the way in which their wages are calculated or determined. As well, wage demands may relate to pay rates may need to be adjusted to compensate employees in times of inflationary pressures such as GST and interest rates.